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Lesson 4

Serving Alcoholic and
Non-Alcoholic Beverages
Understanding beverage service
procedures and how to serve them

Lesson 4: Serving Alcoholic and Non-Alcoholic Beverages

Lesson Overview

4.0 Introduction
4.1 Beverage service procedures
4.2 – 4.3 Responsible service of alcohol / Beverage service and
the law
4.4 Alcohols role in modern society
4.5 Recommended safe levels of consumption
4.6 The body and alcohol
4.7 Management responsibilities in beverage staff training
4.8 Preventing guest intoxication and identifying over consumption
4.9 Delaying or suspending service
4.10 The hangover


Lesson 4: Serving Alcoholic and Non-Alcoholic Beverages Aims and Learning Outcomes of the Lesson On completion of this lesson the learner will be expected to be able to. .  Explain and apply the service procedures for alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages  Determine their legal and moral responsibilities in relation alcohol service  Explain the recommended safe levels of consumption for alcohol  Know the techniques used to prevent intoxication and to identify intoxicated guests  Describe the potential effects of a hangover.

Fruit juices: freshly squeezed or prepared juices (straight or without ice). J. chilled or room temperature. Oxford: England. . lagers. greet them with a smile. in cocktails or speciality coffees). sparkling. brandy (served with water. manufactured mixers (served mixed with spirits or straight with ice). coffee. 2010) suggest that you should ‘always make your customers feel welcome. Cordial / Syrups: used for sweetening.Drinks Handbook. rum.Lesson 4: Serving Alcoholic and Non-Alcoholic Beverages 4. (straight. Liqueurs: flavoured. Further information: Murphy. Beer: ales. helps maximise seating arrangements  Upon seating a customer – show them the food and beverage lists. flavouring. Hot drinks: tea. Edwards & Nutley. whiskey. Goodfellow Publishing Ltd. Distilled spirits: vodka. diluted with water.1 Beverage service procedures Bamunuge. stouts. ice. Cider and Perry. promotions etc Types of alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages: Wine: still. gin. fortified or aromatized. chocolate. explain specialities. with ice. Mineral waters (natural mineral water.(2013) Principles and Practices of Bar & Beverage Management . within cocktails or speciality coffees). even if you are busy serving a drink order to someone else’  Escort customers to a bar table (when possible) – creates good impression.

holding the bottle by the neck in your left hand. when pouring wine for a party of six or more. the vintage (if applicable). service cloth the host will then accept or decline the wine the waiter will then pour wine for the ladies first. the grape (if applicable). the host will then accept or decline the wine.Lesson 4: Serving Alcoholic and Non-Alcoholic Beverages 4. then pours a taste of the wine for the host to taste. when filling the glass a general rule is to two thirds of a glass full for white wine and a half glass full of red wine (this also depends on the size of the glass because some modern wine glasses can be huge if the host orders another bottle of the same wine the host must receive a clean glass to taste and then the remainder of the table are served if the host orders a different bottle of wine. the corkscrew is then inserted into the bottle. and social position. a different type of red wine. 55-58) Initial considerations: taking the order. glasses. this is for the customer to examine the cork for defaults as the cork is sometimes the reason for faulty in wine.. carefully extracting the cork. if it is a screw cap there is no need to present the cap the server.            present the wine to the host (the person who ordered the wine) with the label facing them. ice buckets. carefully cut the foil below the lip of the bottle with the blade on your waiters knife and remove the foil. equipment. then everyone at the table should receive clean wine glasses you must finally check that the host and their guests are happy with the service ensuring also if they require other products and services of the establishment before you leave the table. . the server should hold the bottle behind the label and not by the base of the bottle. with the label facing the customer. ensure that you have your waiters cloth draped over your fore arm so as you can wipe the top of the bottle the cork is presented to the customer. and the host last. if the host is a lady then you still serve her last. rank. When pouring the wine. a bottle of wine will comfortable serve five people a medium sized glass each. the server states the name of the wine. the reason for this is so that the host can read the label again when pouring wine the server should twist the bottle to ensure that no drops of wine will fall onto the table and then wipe the top of the bottle with a waiters. ensure that they all receive the same amount of wine.1 Beverage service procedures (continued – Still Wine Service) Still wine service: (Champagne and sparkling wine service chapter 4 – p. i. service temperature. if they decline then the correct wine should be sourced and presented immediately the server opens the bottle in front of the customer. serving from the right. then gents. consider also age. decanting. to confirm that the wine is the one that was ordered by the host.e.

1 Beverage service procedures (continued – Still Wine Service) Wine Service Figure 5.5 Glass carrying. Figure 4. .1 Carrying a drinks service tray.Lesson 4: Serving Alcoholic and Non-Alcoholic Beverages 4.

 If the cocktail contains a cloudy ingredient such as fresh cream. style and consistency. (Chapter 10 & appendices I. provides a most comprehensive review of the best practice procedures involved in cocktail service with detailed cocktail recipe listings and extended explanations of all the significant cocktail equipment used in cocktail service. Cocktails are about three things. .1 Beverage service procedures (continued – Cocktail Service) Cocktail Service: Making a good cocktail is about getting the balance of flavours right. balance.  If the cocktail requires freshly extracted oils or juices then the cocktail should be muddled. Further information: Murphy. J.Lesson 4: Serving Alcoholic and Non-Alcoholic Beverages 4. The cocktail service also involves strategic decisions regarding the methods used to prepare the cocktails.  If the drinks involved are of different specific gravity’s and the bartender wishes to keep the layers separate then the cocktail be built slowly over the back of a spoon or just over ice. (2013) Principles and Practices of Bar and Beverage Management – The Drinks Handbook’. these decisions depend on several factors. Goodfellow Publishing Ltd. Oxford: England. If you can get that right everything else will fall into place. lemon or orange or a similar opaque item it should be shaken. egg yolk.  If the ingredients are all clear and are also of Co2 (fizzy) then the cocktail should be stirred.

Cappuccino. (Americano.   . although the taste of Pu-erh can last for several steepings.  a light. from a coffee pot offer milk. or cream separately. airy tea such as white tea requires two heaping teaspoons for an 8-once cup. ideal service temperature for coffee is 82c  ensure that the coffee has a good flavour. Latte.e. as appropriate  always serve coffee in very warm cups. when pouring out the coffee at the table. Lighter teas steep longer (3 to 5 minutes) than black teas (2 to 3 minutes). Place the appropriate glasses i. Brewing Tea: This involves getting the amount of tea. The stronger and darker the tea.  it’s important to ask each customer how much sugar they want and. 160-180 degrees Fahrenheit.  for stronger. the closer to the boiling point the water should be. more densely packed black teas.  White and many green teas should be brewed well below the boiling point. use a level teaspoon. Black teas lose their flavour and much of their caffeine after one or two steepings. i. Lighter teas may also keep their flavour through multiple steepings. the water temperature and the steeping time just right. personalise the individual coffee offering with modern service styles. not grey  when serving coffee offer customers a choice of alcohol or liqueurs.Lesson 4: Serving Alcoholic and Non-Alcoholic Beverages 4. Espresso. Caffe Mocha) find which types of coffee your customer require.e Cognac or liqueur glass to the right of the customer. Cognacs and liqueurs must be served in the right glass (see scalding below). body and colour with the milk.1 Beverage service procedures (continued – Coffee and Tea service) Coffee and Liqueurs Service it is a tradition to enjoy coffee at the end of a good meal. Latte Macchiato. ideal service temperature for milk is 68c  serve the coffee from the right hand side of each customer. aroma.

1 Beverage service procedures (continued – Coffee and Tea service) Tea Service Pre-heat teapots and cups with hot boiling water. served with milk. Speciality Teas         Assam: rich full and malty flavoured tea. Darjeeling: the Champagne of teas. Served in a tumbler glass on a side plate with a teaspoon and lemon slice. suitable for breakfast. good flavour. Lapsang Souchong: a smoky. Served with lemon. which is dried with Jasmine Blossom and produces a tea with a fragrant and scented flavour.Lesson 4: Serving Alcoholic and Non-Alcoholic Beverages 4. Served with lemon or milk. . served in the afternoon or evening with lemon or milk.  Indian or Ceylon Blend: usually made in either china or metal teapots.  Russian or Lemon tea: Made similar to china tea served in heat resistant glasses which stand in a silver holder. The Ceylon blend is still used as a trade name.  Iced tea: made strong. delicate to the palate. served with milk. Kenya: consistent and refreshing tea. sometimes strained and always chilled. Served with lemon or milk. Sri Lanka: pale golden tea. which are often used for medicinal purposes. Both are offered with milk or sugar. Earl Grey: blend of Darjeeling and China tea. Tisanes: Tisanes are fruit flavoured teas and herbal infusions. Jasmine: green (un-oxidised) tea. pungent and perfumed tea. which may be said to be an acquired taste. flavoured with oil of Bergamot. which is discarded prior to service. delicate tea with a light grape flavour. with a slice of lemon.

beers. 61-62 further information) Adopting modern service techniques for these drinks can help to intensify and enhance the enjoyment of these drinks for your customers. preparation and service procedures please refer to Murphy. soft drinks and wine recommendations. liqueurs. J. tea and coffee.Lesson 4: Serving Alcoholic and Non-Alcoholic Beverages 4.The Drinks Handbook. Oxford: England. .  Floating liqueurs (Pousse café.1 Beverage service procedures (continued – Distilled spirits and liqueurs service) Distilled sprits and liqueurs service (chapter 4 – pp. cocktails. (2013) ‘Principles and Practices of Bar and Beverage Management. layered shooters)  Flambe  Frozen drinks  Frosting (rimming) glasses  Frappe  Free pour  Chilled spirits  Mist  Martinis  On the rocks  Highballs  Scalding  Straight up. neat  Shots Further information: Comprehensive information in relation to individual distilled spirits.

failure to act responsibly in the service of alcohol can result if negligence is proven against the bar or bartender the court may allow substantial damages Crucial that the bar owner (license holder).  This situation requires considerable patience.4.Lesson 4: Serving Alcoholic and Non-Alcoholic Beverages 4.3 Responsible service of alcohol / Beverage Service and the Law Responsible Service of Alcohol  Bar staff and management have the task of serving and dealing with all types of people from all walks of life and status of society. firmness and above all experience. Bar owners should therefore improve their RSA practices and training for the following reasons. their management and staff members to develop ways to monitor the service of alcohol. it is important that you learn which laws which apply to your country or area The bartender may be held responsible for injury to others that is caused by an intoxicated customer who has been served unlawfully. therefore. Responsible alcohol service practices can also lead to better business practices which contribute to improving the atmosphere of the bar. ultimately to achieve greater profits. not the customer. state or village.  Alcohol awareness and responsible service can ultimately lead to informed and wise decision making by all bar staff. tact.2 . Beverage Service and the Law      The Laws relating to the provision of alcohol differ from country to country and sometimes even region. to decide on service. it is up to the bartender. this is an enjoyable and rewarding part of the job  However there are many occasions when they have to deal with people who may well have on occasion for various reasons consumed too much alcohol. .       maintaining a good reputation increase customer satisfaction decrease damage done to the bar avoid potential legal cases less police attendance morale will increase boosting productivity and reducing staff turnover. An intoxicated guest’s normal judgment will be impaired.

The Center for information on Beverage Alcohol (CBA).   Ancient cultures had their own form of alcohol. Alcohol Policy reports. The International Center for Alcohol Policy (ICAP) – publishes the upper drinking levels for most countries. Drinks companies worldwide have joined together to form social aspects organizations to promote sensible and responsible drinking and to combat abuse . and it played its own role in each society.     The World Health Organization (WHO) Global Status Report.Lesson 4: Serving Alcoholic and Non-Alcoholic Beverages 4. it is generally accepted as a component of our daily life. Further information on World alcohol consumption. be it religious or cultural. enjoying alcoholic beverages has been a part of many societies over many centuries The Swiss Alchemist Paracelsus (1493-1541) who was the first person to use the word 'alcohol'. advertising regulations. laws.4 Alcohols Role in Modern Society Alcohol is considered to be societies most prevalent and accepted legal recreational drug.

Long term effects: no significant risks to health. a standard drink. 9-14 units daily: Acute effects: Loss of self-control. and amount of drinks consumed per session has increased. relaxed or slightly sedated. enables bartenders and consumers to be able to assess the risk levels for consumption. dangerous to drive.Lesson 4: Serving Alcoholic and Non-Alcoholic Beverages 4. bad driving habits could be slightly more pronounced but if you were to be breathalyses. 1 unit of alcohol is equivalent to 10 millilitres (which is approximately 8 grams of ethanol)  Examples: Cider (bottle: 330ml) multiplied by (cider strength: 5% abv) = 1. cholesterol in the blood. strength of drinks. your blood alcohol reading would probably be less than half the legal limit.  Scale units of alcohol for standard drinks: agreed convention is grams of absolute ethanol. or as weekly recommendations. ranging from 8g to 13g in certain countries)  Recommendations on drinking levels considered ‘minimum risk’ for men and women cover a range of values as daily limits. These irrational drinking patterns have created a binge drinking culture. 5-8 units daily: Acute effects: Euphoria feeling. and double vision is common.3 units Alcohol. . feel warm. Long-term effects: regular daily consumption reduces levels of LDL (bad). impairment of mental abilities. 3-4 units daily: Acute effects: You may become more cheerful. Emotions and behavior are exaggerated and you take slightly longer to react.7 units  Lager (one pint : 568ml) multiplied by (lager strength: 4 % abv) = 2. At 2 units. cutting the risk of heart disease. slurred speech.5 Recommended Safe Levels of Consumption Recent research studies indicate that customers and individuals are drinking no more than their parents were drinking 15 years ago but the frequency.  Calculating the unit of alcohol in your drink (formula): Amount of drink (ml) multiplied by the drink strength abv % = Unit/s of alcohol. Long term effects: you're on the slippery slope. Long-term effects: Some risk of breast cancer and liver cirrhosis can be expected. acute and long term effects     1-2 units daily: Acute effects: a mild alteration of feelings and a slight intensification of moods.

liver 90%. loss of memory. BAC 500: death possible.9g e / h per hour (this basically means that alcohol is eliminated only at one unit per hour). there will be some loss of inhibitions and self control. and have little effect on the degree of intoxication. you have poorer judgment and decisions may be affected BAC 80: you have a feeling of warmth and well being.6 The Body and Alcohol Distribution of alcohol: enzymes turn alcohol into acid aldehide into (safe acids).Lesson 4: Serving Alcoholic and Non-Alcoholic Beverages 4. Blood alcohol concentration (BAC) levels. may be aggressive BAC 200: drunk. driving ability definitely worse BAC 120: you are likely to become more talkative. hyperventilating. staggering.  Vomiting. perspiring. BAC 300: possibly unconscious BAC 400: unconsciousness likely. there is an increased chance of an accident (2 small beers) BAC 60: you are cheerful. .  The body can only eliminate about one dose of alcohol per hour. lungs (breath) 2-4%. speech is slurred. So you must be extra careful the morning after. BAC levels and likely human condition. BAC 800: death probable. double vision.  Full detailed removal of alcohol from the body is as follows skin (sweat) 2-6%.  Elimination rate is 5 . for example if you operating machinery or driving. Women have fewer enzymes in the liver and gut wall that break down alcohol Removal of alcohol: alcohol is predominately removed by metabolism in the liver cells. consuming black coffee or urinating have no effect on the removal on the amount of alcohol in the blood. kidneys (urine) 2-4%. excited and emotional. by drinking several drinks in that time will increase your BAC much more than having one drink over an hour or more. tolerance to alcohol Humans develop tolerance when their brains adapt to compensate for the disruption caused by alcohol in both their behaviour and their bodily functions. distribution differs on gender. you are inhibited and may act on impulse BAC 150: you are silly and probably confused. Women lower body fluid (usually 50-70% of body weight) distribution is faster. Men . death not unknown.. Slow reaction time. BAC 40: you begin to feel relaxed.high body fluid volume (usually 60-80% of body weight) distribution is usually slower.

and  starting a designated driver program (DDP) Avoiding conflict and violence  removal of glasses.  Support staff with (written house policy. staff meetings. excellent customer service.  offering to include the cost of mini-buses as part of the costs of a function.  staff offering to call a taxi.  well trained staff. keenly priced food. these staff should vet underage persons  ready availability of attractive. variety of spaces and activities  adequate seating arrangements  . Consider safe transport options  staff offering to call a friend or family member of a customer. containers and litter regularly. an incident log and reviewing particular incidents).  adequate numbers of licensed crowd controllers (hosts)  adequate toilet facilities  video camera surveillance in large bars and clubs  a good ratio between the men and women attending the premises  non-aggressive staff monitoring the door. low alcohol and non-alcoholic drinks.  making a phone available and the phone numbers of taxi companies.Lesson 4: Serving Alcoholic and Non-Alcoholic Beverages 4.7 Management Responsibilities in Beverage Staff Training Management must clearly state their expectation of staff and give them the authority to make decisions.

boisterous. bumping into furniture. hearing. spilling drinks and difficulty in picking up change. potato skins).  A lack of judgment. careless with their money. physical or mental strength.  Clumsiness. . slurred speech. recent news.  Keep track of how many drinks are being consumed and in what time frame. animated. sudden quietness. argumentative. listed below are some of the most signs to help you in your decision making process. becoming clumsy. These signs much not considered in isolation of each other because rash decisions can also cause you major problems. erratic. so how do we identify over consumption.Lesson 4: Serving Alcoholic and Non-Alcoholic Beverages 4.  Suggest selling food (especially high protein food such as fried cheese. entertaining.  A noticeable change in your customer’s behavior . Techniques to identifying guest intoxication  Some people are very clever at hiding intoxication. irrational or repeated statements. guests drinking fast).e. obnoxious. losing muscular control. a person with disability might display some of the signs below.  Loss of co-ordination. boasts about their financial situation. mean. annoying customers.8 Preventing Guest Intoxication and Identifying Over Consumption Strategies to prevent guest intoxication  Notify management of potential problems (i. drinking faster.  The smell of alcohol (an important indication). ‘conquests’.  Promote healthy non and low alcoholic drinks / events – attractive signage and price incentives are useful. complaining about drink prices. ask details that would be a good test of mental alertness (i. or becomes detached. sports events).  Bar staff can influence a customer’s decision regarding drinks so try to avoid unacceptable serving practices. delays in responding to questions and paying attention. becoming drowsy (heavy eyelids). making silly. difficulty in walking straight. brooding. using bad language.e.  Engage you guests in conversations. becoming loud (heightened voice volume). swaying and staggering.  Decreased alertness. over friendly to strangers wants to converse or buy them a drink. concentration and focus ‘glazed eyes’.

69- 70).Lesson 4: Serving Alcoholic and Non-Alcoholic Beverages 4. 71). . Refusal of service technique (T.E – Chapter 4 .p.E C. This decision can be easily determined by a customer’s actions.  Responsible service of alcohol (RSA): role-play scenarios for  discussion (chapter 4 – p. service can be delayed. if the customer showing signs of intoxication. 70).R. service of alcohol may be stopped for the duration of the evening.  Delaying or suspending service: best practices (chapter 4 – pp.A.A.9 Delaying or Suspending Service When a customer has reached their maximum number of drinks.K.

sensitivity to lights and noise. a type of alcohol found as a congener in most alcoholic drinks. which will never be replaced. . This is the major cause of hangover headache. causing telltale bloodshot eyes. Your customers will be suffering the following conditions. altering the water balance in the cells and tissues.  Brain cells: example: 1 single measure of whiskey destroys 20000 brain cells.  Dehydration: although you're taking in more fluids. you're also expelling them more quickly.  Vessels relax (blood shot eyes): alcohol relaxes blood vessels.  Low blood sugar  Irritation of the stomach lining  A degree of poisoning: congeners (impurities which give particular taste .hence difficulty in sleeping.Lesson 4: Serving Alcoholic and Non-Alcoholic Beverages 4. which then expand to let more blood through. is not broken down by most people's bodies until the morning after.toxins) methanol.  Nervous System (sensitivity): the body combats the sedative effects of alcohol by making the nervous system more sensitive .10 The Hangover Hangover symptoms are caused by the combined effects of the congeners and the products of the breakdown of alcohol. It's then that the unpleasant toxins responsible for many hangover symptoms are produced.

. Unfortunately abuse or over consumption of alcohol can bring harmful consequences. Display your house policy on alcohol in a good vantage point within your premises Remember we can all make the differences that count in making our jobs more enjoyable and our bars safer and socially enhanced. Always support your bartenders when refusing service and allocate proper access and time for RSA staff training. Alcohol is usually present everywhere in our socializing. Promote low alcohol and non-alcoholic drinks.Lesson 4: Serving Alcoholic and Non-Alcoholic Beverages Conclusion          Beverage staff must always seek to provide high standards when serving all types of alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages. entertaining and workplace environments It enlivens our moment of relaxation and generally helps to promote lively cultural engagements and a healthy disposition when consumed in moderation and with care. Managing alcohol consumption through responsible service strategies need to be adopted by all your in-house staff.

London: Hodder Education.  www. R.icap.  www. (2013) Principles and Practices of Bar and Beverage Management – The Drinks Handbook.efrd. . IBA. Murphy. (2005) ‘Dealing with Intoxication’. Kummer.  http://www. J. Jemma Publications Ltd: Dublin. J. Hepner. November. Moxham. and Deegan. how to serve alcohol responsibly. brewing. and enjoying. Murphy. Cousins. D.(2003) The joy of coffee : the essential guide to buying. Irish National Alcohol Awareness Campaign (2001-03) Phases and Booklets. Murphy. (2008) A Guide to Social Responsibility.cfm#incident National restaurant association. (1994) Introduction to Food and Beverage Service.Codex II. Western Health Board: G. R.servsafe. (2010) Essential Food and Beverage Service. Constable Publishing: UK. (2013) Principles and Practices of Bar and Beverage Management. Licensing Serve-safe USA. Web resources  www. International Bartenders Association: The Netherlands. Oxford: England. European Forum for Responsible Drinking. (2003) Tea: addition exploitation and empire. K.Lesson 4: Serving Alcoholic and Non-Alcoholic Beverages References             Brown. Thomas Dum Books: England. Oxford: APSAD Australia. J. Murphy. (2002) Developing an Alcohol and Drug Policy for your Workplace'. (2002) Alcohol: The World's Favourite Drink. Goodfellow Publishing Ltd. Irish Health International centre for alcohol policies (ICAP). C. A. Goodfellow Publishing Ltd. Pearson Education Ltd: England.  www. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. and Lillicrap. : Italy. Water Codex II (nd) The San Pellegrino and Aqcua Panna Water .