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A heat engine is a device which transforms the chemical

energy of a fuel into thermal energy and uses this thermal
energy to produce mechanical work.
Heat engines are classified as
(i) External combustion engines (EC Engines).
(ii) Internal combustion engines (IC Engines).

In an External combustion engine the

In steam engine, the working fluid (high
pressure steam) is generated outside the
The steam is then passed to a reciprocating
In an Internal combustion engine


Chemical energy is released

when the fuel-air mixture is burnt
in the combustion chamber.

I.C engines directly convert

chemical energy of the fuel into
useful mechanical work.

The gas produced in this

reaction rapidly expands forcing
the piston down the cylinder on
the power stroke.


Cylinder block
piston rings
Inlet and exhaust valves
Connecting rod
gudgeon pin


Cylinder is made up of cast iron or an aluminum alloy.

Inside the cylinder, piston is fitted which makes the
reciprocating motion.
This reciprocating motion is converted to rotary motion
through a mechanism consisting of a connecting rod and
crank shaft (slider crank mechanism).

It is cylindrical in
shape fitted tightly
inside the cylinder.
It moves up and
down inside the
cylinder bore and
transmits the force
combustion of fuel
to the crankshaft.

Piston rings

Piston rings provide a sliding seal between the external cylindrical

surface of the piston and the inner surface of the cylinder.
The rings serve two purposes:
They prevent the fuel/air mixture and exhaust in the combustion
chamber from leaking into the sump during compression and
They keep oil in the sump from leaking into the combustion area,
where it would be burnt and lost.

Intake and exhaust valves

The intake and exhaust valves open at the proper time
to let in air and fuel and to let out the products of burnt
fuel (exhaust)
During compression and combustion both the valves
are closed

Spark plug
Used to generate the spark which ignites the compressed
fuel and air mixture in the spark ignition engine.
To generate the spark, a high voltage of around 20,000
Volts is applied.


The connecting rod connects the piston to the

It can rotate at both ends so that its inclination angle
can change as the piston moves up and down and the
crankshaft rotates.

The crankshaft converts up and down motion of the piston into circular

It is mounted on the
crankshaft which stores
excess energy during the
power stroke and returns
that energy during the other
strokes and hence reduces
the fluctuation in speed.

Gudgeon pin (Piston pin)

It is the pin which links the connecting rod with
the piston


It is used to operate the inlet and exhaust valves through

cams, cam followers, push rods and rocker arms.

Used to operate the valves.
Designed in a way to open the valves in correct
time and to keep open for necessary duration

Sump (Oil pan)

Sump surrounds the crankshaft
Contains oil, which collects in the bottom of
the sump (the oil pan)

Terminology in I.C engines

The inside diameter of the cylinder is known as bore.
Maximum distance traveled by the piston inside the cylinder in one
direction is known as stroke.
Equals twice the radius of the crank.
Top Dead Center (TDC)
Extreme position of piston at the top of the cylinder.
Bottom Dead Center (BDC)
Extreme position of piston at the bottom of the cylinder

Terminology in I.C engines

Clearance Volume
The volume contained in the cylinder above the top of the piston when it is at
TDC and is denoted Vc.
Piston Displacement or Swept Volume (Vs)
Volume swept by the piston when traveling from one dead center to the other
is called piston displacement.
Expressed as cubic centimeter (cc)
Vs = A x L = (/4) d2 L
Compression Ratio (r)
Ratio of the total volume of the cylinder above the piston when it is at BDC to
the volume when the piston is at TDC, denoted as r.
r = (Vc+Vs)/Vc

4 - Stroke SI engine working principle

Movement of the piston up or down the cylinder makes up one stroke.
It is the distance between TDC and BDC and is equal to twice the radius
of the crank.
In the four stroke engine cycle there are four strokes namely,
Suction or Intake stroke,
Compression stroke,
Expansion stroke or power stroke,
exhaust stroke.
One cycle completes when piston moves for four strokes or two
revolutions of the crankshaft.

(i) Suction or Intake stroke.

In the suction stoke piston moves from top dead center to

bottom dead center.
Inlet valve opens at this time and the exhaust valve is closed.
The fuel air mixture is sucked into the cylinder during the
intake stroke.
The suction is shown in the Ideal PV diagram (path 0-1)

(ii) Compression stroke

Piston starts moving from bottom to top (path 1-2)

compressing the air-fuel mixture.
Both inlet and exhaust valves are closed during this stroke.
At the end of the compression stroke the fuel-air mixture is
ignited with the spark plug leads to increase in pressure and
temperature which is around 2000C (path 2-3).
The heat addition takes place at constant volume process.

(iii) Expansion or Power stroke.

Piston is pushed to BDC (path 3-4) with high force due to high
pressure released by burnt gases.
During expansion the pressure and temperature decreases (path
This is known as power or expansion stoke.
Both inlet and outlet valves are in closed position during the
power stroke.

(iv) Exhaust stroke.

The piston which is in BDC starts moving to TDC (path 5-0).
During this stroke the exhaust valve opens and the inlet valve
remains closed.
The burnt gases are pushed out to the atmosphere by the
The exhaust valve closes when the piston reaches TDC.
Thus one cycle completes.
During a cycle the crank shaft turns by two revolutions.

Ideal PV diagram of a four stroke SI engine (Otto cycle)

Working of 4 stroke 4 cylinder diesel engine

2 Stroke engine working principle

In the 2 stroke engine, the working cycle completes in two

strokes of the piston movement or one revolution of the crank
The valves are replaced by ports.
There are three ports in two stroke engine namely inlet port,
transfer port and the exhaust port.
The ports are opened and closed by the movement of piston,
here cams are not used for operating to open and close the

Exhaust port is located slightly above the inlet port and the
transfer port is located in between the exhaust port and inlet port.
When the piston is at TDC and about to move downwards, only
the inlet port is kept opened and other two ports are closed.
The air and fuel (petrol) mixture is drawn into the crankcase due
to vacuum produced by the upward movement of the piston.
It is to be noted that top surface of the piston controls the opening
and closing of the exhaust port and transfer port whereas the
bottom surface of the piston controls the opening and closing of
the inlet port.

Inlet port closes

During the movement of piston from BDC to TDC the
mixture inside the cylinder gets compressed.
As the piston reaches TDC the spark is produced by the
spark plug.
As the pressure and temperature of the burnt gases increase
the gases push the piston towards downward direction.
When the exhaust port open during the movement of piston
from TDC to BDC the burnt gases leave the cylinder through
exhaust port.

Transfer and exhaust ports open

When the piston moves down, the inlet port also closes due
to which the air fuel mixture trapped in the crankcase will get
As the piston moves still towards BDC the transfer port is
opened due to which the mixture from the crank case enters
the cylinder.


piston crown is specially made in a shape such that the fresh

mixture hits the piston crown and gets deflected up and is
prevented from going out directly to the atmosphere through the
exhaust port.
The deflected fresh mixture pushes the burnt gases out.
This action of sweeping out the exhaust gases with the help of
fresh charge is known as Scavenging.
During the downward movement of piston the power, exhaust and
suction process takes place.

When the piston moves from BDC to TDC first
transfer port closes, then exhaust port closes finally
the inlet port will open.
After closing the exhaust port the air-fuel mixture
gets compressed and the cycle is repeated.
The inlet port is opened and closed by the bottom portion
of the piston.

Two stroke SI engine with Inlet valve.

Nowadays in the two stroke SI engine instead of inlet port,
spring loaded inlet valves are used for suction of fuel air

2 Stroke Diesel engine

Working principle of two stroke diesel engine is
similar to two stroke petrol engine.
During suction stroke, only air is sucked instead
air-fuel mixture.
The fuel is injected using fuel injector during the
power stroke;
here there is no spark plug.

Comparison between Four stroke and Two

stroke engine
Four stroke

Two stroke

The cycle completes in four strokes or two revolution of the

crank shaft

The cycle completes in two strokes or one revolution of the

crank shaft

For the same power the engine is bulkier and heavier

For the same power the engine is small and light weight

Efficiency is high.

Efficiency is low.

It has valves and valve actuating mechanisms

It has ports (some 2 stroke engines are fitted with

conventional exhaust valve or reed valve)

Used where efficiency is important viz., cars, buses, trucks.

Used where low cost, compactness and for light weight

application viz., motor cycles and mopeds.

Comparison between SI and CI engine

Cooling System
To maintain the temperature of I.C engine in an
optimum value, cooling of engine is essential.

If cooling is not provided the temperature of I.C engine

rises and the expansion of piston and burning out of
lubricating oil occurs which leads to seizure of piston.

Also the strength of the materials used for various

engine parts usually decreases with the increase in

Two types of cooling are adopted

(i) Air cooling
(ii) Water cooling

Air cooling

Air cooling is used for low power engines like the ones
used for motor cycles and also for aero engines to
reduce the weight.
Cooling fins are provided in the cylinder head and the
outer surface of the cylinder as shown in the figure.
The amount of heat dissipated depends upon the
surface area of the fins, amount of air circulated, the
velocity of air and the temperature difference between
the engine block and the surrounding.
In large size engine the circulation of air is enhanced by
a fan.

Water cooling
Water cooling is commonly used in cars, buses, heavy trucks and
Water passage is provided between the walls of cylinder and the
Water is circulated along the cylinder by a pump driven by the
The heat will be carried away by the water passing over the
The water in the radiator is cooled by the air circulated by the

Water cooling


Friction, Wear and Lubrication are three important terms in

mechanical engineering. In fact the study of these three items
is called Tribology.

Lubrication is the activity of providing a lubricant (a

substance) between solid surfaces in contact having relative
motion to reduce friction.

Functions of lubrication

Reduce the friction between the rubbing parts

Reduce the wear and tear
Reduce the power loss
Form good seal between piston rings and
cylinder walls
Keep the rubbing parts clean

SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers) has allocated

The SAE grades 0W through 25W, where W stands for
Winter, have a maximum viscosity specified at low
temperatures (5C to 35C), to ensure easy starting under
as these grades are not intended for use under low
For marine applications, monograde oils of SAE 30 or SAE

Automotive oils are normally formulated with Viscosity Index Improvers
(VI Improvers) to provide multigrade performance.
VI Improvers are very large molecules, which are chemically made by
linking together smaller molecules in a process called polymerization.
The resulting products, called polymers, may have molecular weights
1000 times or more greater than the base stock molecules.
The use of these special polymers makes it possible to meet both the low
temperature viscosity requirements of the W grades as well as the high
temperature requirements of the non-W grades.
SAE 20W40 has the low temperature viscosity value of a SAE 20W oil at
low temperatures and the high temperature viscosity of a SAE 40 oil at the
higher temperature.

The parts required lubrication in I.C engines are

cam shaft
connecting rod, etc.
Normally the lubrication is applied to these parts by splash
lubrication system where oil is placed on the oil sump.
In two stroke SI engines the lubricating oil will be directly mixed
with petrol for lubrication (Petroil lubrication).

Types of Lubricants

Solid lubricants Graphite

Liquid lubricants Mineral oils, Vegetable oils

Semi solid lubricants - Grease

Requirements of good lubricating oil

A good lubricant should possess the following requirements

Sufficient viscosity to work under high and low temperature.
Normally high viscosity index is preferred for engine lubrication.
Should not react with the surfaces being lubricated
Should be noncorrosive and should provide protection against
Must have good detergent quality to keep the rubbing parts clean
Must be Non toxic and non-flammable

Applications of I.C engines

For transport on land, sea and air

Industrial power and prime movers for electric
generators. plants
For Irrigation purpose
Earth moving equipment

Classification of Ic engines

Give four applications of I.C engines
Give the difference between
(a) Petrol and diesel engines
(b) Two stroke and four stroke engine
Explain the construction of a four stroke single cylinder
I.C engine.
Explain the working principle of
(a) Four stroke petrol engine
(b) Four stroke diesel engine
(c) Two stroke petrol engine with intake port.

With a PV diagram explain the process in
Otto cycle.
With a neat sketch explain the water cooling
system used in cars
Give a comparison between water cooling
and air cooling.
Explain the need for lubrication in I.C engine