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3.

3 The Role of
Hormones in Humans

Hormones are chemical messengers


produced by endocrine glands.
The endocrine system consists of a
number of glands that secrete
hormones.

Why endocrine system is necessary?


-The endocrine and the nervous system
play important roles in maintaining
homeostasis.(The maintenance of
constant internal environment)
-Both these systems often work together.

- The endocrine system usually


complements the nervous system.

What are the differences between the


endocrine system and the nervous
system?

Fight or flight situation


Example: When a person is being attacked
by a dog.
a) Eyes detect stimuli (dog)
b) The hypothalamus in the brain sends
nerve impulses to adrenal medulla and
secretes adrenaline.

Thyroid stimulating hormone ( stimulates,


thyroxine)
Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
follicles, spermatogenesis
Luteinising hormone(LH)- ovulation,
corpus luteum, testosterone
Growth hormone (GH)- growth
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)- water
reabsorption

Thyroxine
Metabolic rate
Body temperature
Growth

Adrenaline
Sugar , fatty acids
Heart beat , breathing
Metabolic rate

Pancreas
Insulin
Blood glucose
Glucose to glycogen

- Glucagon
-blood glucose
Glycogen to glucose

j) Oestrogen
- Secondary sexual characteristics
- Uterine lining
k) Progesterone
- Development
- Ovulation

L) Androgens
-male

c) Adrenaline causes:
i) Increases heart beat rate
ii) Increases breathing rate
iii) Increases blood pressure
iv) Increases blood glucose level
v) Increases metabolic rate

d) Effect:
i) The heart pumps a larger amount of
oxygen and glucose to the brain and
skeletal muscles
ii) The skeletal muscles become more
energised and enable a person to
- Fight off an attacker
- Flee immediately from danger

The Effects Hormonal Imbalance

Undersecretion of growth hormone


a) Dwarfism
- Retards bone growth
- The organs of a person often fails to
grow
- The size of the body is like that of a child

Oversecretion of growth hormone:


b) Gigantism
- Abnormal increase in the length of
bones
- The person grows to become
abnormally tall
- During adulthood, acromegaly
i) The bones, hands, feet, cheeks and jaw
thicken
ii) Other tissue enlarge

Undersecretion of thyroxine

c) Cretinism
-Mental retardation in children
-Myxedema in adulthood, symptoms:
i) Slow heart rate
ii) Low metabolic rate
iii) Low body temperature
iv) Weight gain

Undersecretion of thyroxine:
-Hypothyroidism which results in goitre
(Enlarged thyroid glands)


a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)

Oversecretion of thyroxine :
Increase in metabolic rate, symptoms:
Excessive sweating
Increased bowel movements
Nervousness
Rapid heart rate
Weight loss
Heat intolerance
Hyperthyroidism

Undersecretion of insulin:
- Diabetis mellitus : Abnormally high levels
of glucose in the blood stream


a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)

Oversecretion of insulin:
Hypoglycaemia : An abnormally low level of
glucose in the blood
Symptoms:
Fatigue
Insomnia
Mental confusion
Nervousness
Mood swings
Fainting spells
Headaches

Undersecretion of ADH :
- Diabetis incipidus : The person excretes
a large amount of urine

Oversecretion of ADH:
-Oedema
- Accumulation of excess fluid in the body

Subjective Question
1 (a) (i) P: Follicle stimulating hormone
(FSH)
Q: Luteinising hormone (LH)
(ii) Hormone P stimulates the follicle cells in
the ovary to produce oestrogen and to
stimulate the development of a Graafian
follicle from primary oocyte. Hormones Q
stimulates ovulation.

b)
c)i)
ii) Ovulation takes place during the 14 th day.
The matured Graafian follicle moves to the
surface of the ovary to release the
secondary oocyte into the Fallopian tube.

d) If there is fertilisation, the level of


progesterone remains high to maintain the
thickened wall of endometrium. The
endometrium wall stays thick and does not
disintegrate.

Question 2 (a)
Fertilisation takes place in the Fallopian
tube.
A zygote is formed.
Zygote divides repeatedly by mitosis as
it travels down the Fallopian tube.
A solid ball of cells called morula is
formed.

The morula develops into a hollow ball of


cells called blastocyst.
The blastocyst arrives at the uterus and
attaches to the endometrium.
Implantation takes place.
Blastocyst has a thickened inner mass
of cells and the outer layer called
trophoblast.

The inner cell mass will develop into the


embryo.
The trophoblast forms finger-like projections
into the wall of the uterus to form placenta
together with the mothers tissue.
The embryo is called foetus from the ninth
week when the body parts can be identified.
A baby is ready to be born after 40 weeks of
development.

Question 2 (b)
Diagram 2 (a) shows formation of identical
twins.
Diagram 2 (b) shows the formation of
fraternal twins.