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Why electricity in India is in the multiples of 11 like 11kv,

22kv, 33kv ?

Transformer Induced voltage equation contains 4.44 factor.


E=4.44*f*T*phi
E -Induced emf per phase
T -number of turns
f -frequency
phi -maximum flux per pole
From the equation we see that E is proportional to 4.4 and it is in
turn multiple of 11.So always transmission voltage is multiple of 11.

Why DC series motor should be started with load?


In any DC motor, the speed of the motor is inversely propotional to the
flux and directly proportional to Back EMF .
When starting a series motor the current flowing will be high, but the
flux that the motor produces will be moderate since the series winding
has less number of turns.
Hence, if u start the motor without load the speed will increase.
As speed increases the back emf increases.
This decreases the current through the series winding and hence flux
decreases and the speed further increases.
Theoretically speaking the speed becomes infinite. But practically the
motor will accelerate to very high speed , which will damage the motor.
But if you start the motor with the load, you are actually reducing the
starting speed hence the motor runs safely.
Since series motors has this property it is used in trains to pull high
load.

Why we are having 1phase,2phase & 3phase


only and not others?

The total power of the system increases if we


increase the number of phases.
Two phase system has 40% power more than
single phase system.
Three phase system has 50% power more than two
phase system.
But in four phase system it is 7% power only.
Also the design of the system will be more
complicated. So we have three phase system only

The subscripts "o" and "rms" stand for peak value and root-mean-square
value respectively.
The supply voltage (A) and the circuit current (E) will always have a
phase difference. The phase difference can be found by using the triangle
(H). If the inductive reactance is greater than the capacitive reactance, the
supply voltage will lead the current; if the inductive reactance is smaller than
the capacitive reactance, the supply voltage will lag behind the current .
The p.d. across the resistor (B) oscillates inphase with the current (E).
The p.d. across the capacitor (C) lags behind the current (E) by pi/2.
The p.d. across the inductor (D) leads the current (E) by pi/2.
.In other words, (C) and (D) are wlays in antiphase.
The four RMS volatges are related by the triangle (H).
The curve (F) shows the variation of the reciprocal of the impedance
against frequency.
(G) shows three rotating vectors (phasors), their projections on the y-axis
corresponds to the three instantaneous voltages.
Series resonance is achieved by adjusting f, L or C such that the black dot
is exactly at the highest point of the curve (F).
At resonance, (i) phase diff = 0 and (ii) Z = R. Therefore, (A) and (B)
become exactly identical, (A) and (E) are inphase. The circuit current (E) is

What is a Series Circuit?


It is a circuit in which resistors are arranged in a
chain, so the current has only one path to take. The current
is the same through each resistor. The total resistance of the
current is found by simply adding up the resistance values of
the individual resistors
Advantages of Series Circuit:
Adding Power Devices- you can add the additional power
devices, usually using batteries. Doing this will greatly
increase the overall force of your output. This will give you
more power.
Easy to use- they are easy to learn and to make. It's simple
design is easy to understand. this will help you make
repairs without the help of a professional.
Disadvantages of Series Circuit:
If one component in a series circuit fails, then all the
components in the circuit fails.
the more components there are in the circuit, the greater
the circuit's resistance.

What is a Parallel Circuit?


- has two or more paths for current to flow through. Voltage
is the same across each component of the parallel circuit.
The sum of the currents through each path is equal to the
total current that flows from the source
Advantages of a Parallel Circuit:
a failure of one component does not lead to the failure of the
other components.
more components may be added in parallel without the need for
additional voltage.

Disadvantages of a Parallel Circuit:


It requires the use of lot of wires.
The source amperage is increased whenever we add a new load
to a parallel circuit.
Due to proper working sometimes the damage if any, caused to
the circuit, may get neglected. This is hazardous.
We cannot increase or multiply the voltage in a parallel circuit.
Multiple control devices are to be employed for the control of the
devices in parallel connection.
Parallel connection fails at the time when it is required to pass
exactly same amount of current through the units.
The design of a parallel circuit is very complex.
Additional power sources like batteries cannot be added in
parallel connection.
Watch a Video in Solving Series and Parallel Circuits!