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Tourism Consumer Behaviour

- Aritro Dasgupta

Features
When tourists visit specific destination,

they never behave the way they will in


native place
Behavioural traits may differ depending on
background & nationality
Tangible products can be assessed better
before purchase; tourism being intangible
product consumer has to rely on books,
reviews, blogs, websites, movies, word-ofmouth etc.
Global culture of consumption where
leisure travel increasingly commoditized

Needs of a Tourist
Mode of travel
Boarding & lodging
Scenic spots in & around tourist destination
Package tours

Tourist Life Cycle

Pre
Trip

Trip

Post
Trip
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Pre Trip
Inboun
d

Domes
tic
Potentia
l Tourist

Outbou
nd

Trip

Booking

Capturin
g
Feedback
&
Thinking

Tourist
Experien
cing Trip

Post Trip

Action
Taken
report
(ATR) on
Feedback

Dispatchin
g ATR to
Tourist

Updating
Print /
Electronic
/ Online
media

Reasons for Growth in Tourism


Across Globe
Increase in disposable income of

consumers
Enhanced aircraft technology, facilitating
speedy travel
Enhanced connectivity
Education & awareness
Increase in leisure time of consumers
Proliferation of holiday package & tour
operators

5 Phase Experience Model

Anticipati
on phase

Travel to
actual
site

Onsite
experien
ce &
activities

Travel
back

Recollecti
on of
experien
ces

Tourist Profile Segmentation


Supply Side Segmentation
Demand Side Segmentation

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Supply Side Segmentation


Geographic Segmentation
Product Related Segmentation

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Product Related
Segmentation
Accommodation
Attractions
Adventure operators / organizers
Transportation & services
Seasons
Nature of visit

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Demand Side Segmentation


Life Cycle Segments
Traveler Profile
Socio Economic Classification
Household Demographics

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Life Cycle Segments


Youth market (age 18-35 without children)
Family market (age 18-35 with children)
Mature market (36-65)
Seniors market (65+)

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Traveller Profile
Duration of trip / stay
Destination

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Socio Economic Classification


Upper class
Middle class
Lower class

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Household Demographics
Household makeup
Age profiles
Occupation profiles
Income
Lifestyle & life stage profiles
Race / ethnicity
Education level

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Behavioural Sequence Model (BSM)


Grid format to identify decision of target

audience
Horizontal bar stands for WHAT of decision
making i.e. major decision stages
preceding, including & following the
purchase
Vertical enumerates following data:
WHO- decision participants & roles
WHERE- locations of decision stages
WHEN- time & timing of each stage
HOW- capsule description of how each stage
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is accomplished

BSM

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WHAT

Need Arousal

Information Search
about Destination

WHO (Roles)

Initiator: family
members;
Influences:
colleagues, friends &
relatives;
Users: all travellers

Family members search


data from secondary data
sources & travel agents

WHERE
(Location)

Travel portals, media


advertisements,
travel books

Internet

WHEN
(Timings)

Prior to the preferred


season / holidays

Prior to the preferred


season / holidays

HOW
(Description)

Evaluation of
intrinsic needs: for
retreat,
health/wellness,
family commitment

Surf travel portals &


consult travel magazines

BSM

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WHAT

Travel
Logistics

Purchase /
Consumptio
n

Postpurchase

WHO (Roles)

Family
members &
travel agents

Family
members

Travellers &
prospective
travellers
affected

WHERE
(Location)

Planning stage;
homeland/desti
nation

Destination

Homeland

WHEN
(Timings)

Prior to the
preferred
season /
holidays

Holiday
season

Post- holiday

HOW
(Description)

Travel agent
services

Classify
destinations
on basis of
preference &

By word of
mouth, blogs

Information Search Process


Need
Recogniti
on
Informati
on
Research
Alternativ
e
Evaluatio
n
Purchase
Decision

Outcome
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Motivators for Tourist


Consumers

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Basis of
Segmentation

Motivation
Theory

Comments

Need-based

Maslows
Hierarchy of
Needs

An emotional trigger that


enables marketers to
communicate with their
target audiences

Values-based

Rokeach Value
Theory

Consists of instrumental
values (ideal modes of
behaviour) & terminal
values (ideal end states of
existence)

Valence of
attributes

Expectancy
Theory

Judges the various


attributes on basis of
relative weights attached
to them

Major Deterrents
Crime
Political instability
Terrorism
Prices
Hygiene
Lack of Infrastructure
Weather

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Tourism Consumer BehaviourTypologies


Sunlust & Wanderlust tourism
Individual- experiencing capability

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Sunlust v/s Wanderlust


Tourism
Sunlust

Wanderlust

Motivated by desire to rest, relax & Desire to travel & experience different

enjoy 3 Ss- sun, sea & sand

cultures & people; make use of every

Hotel forms important part of


Hotel only meant as place to sleep at night,

itinerary
Typically middle age older

every other moment to be used in some


activity

population including family groups Typically involves young audience 20-35


Conversations include daily chatter Conversations focus away from mundane

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Individual Experiencing
Capability
Organized mass tourist
Individual mass tourist
Explorers
Drifters

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Organized Mass Tourist


Fixed itineraries
Planned and guided stops
Novelty minimum
Familiarity is at a maximum
Everything left to the organizer

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Individual Mass Tourist


Not entirely planned by others
Some control over his / her itinerary
Major arrangements made through travel

intermediary
Mixes little with members of the host
community
Familiarity is still dominant

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Explorer
Plan their own trips and try to avoid

developed tourist attractions as much as


possible
Novelty dominates but tourist does not
become fully integrated with the host
society

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Drifter
Plan trips alone, visit tourist attractions and

live with members of the host society


High involvement in the host culture,
sharing its shelter, food and habits
Novelty dominant and familiarity
disappears

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Shopping & Tourism


Traditionally 3 Ss of tourism- sun, sand &

sea
Shopping now considered 4th S
However, trends are reversing in some
developed markets as developing countries
also now home to products earlier not
available

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Customer Value, Loyalty &


Satisfaction

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Customer Perceived Value


(CPV)
CPV is difference between prospective

customers evaluation of benefits & costs


offered and perceived alternatives
Cost need no be monetary, but also include
time, cognitive activity & behavioral effort

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Customer Perceived Value


Customer Benefit

Product Benefit
Services Benefit
Personnel Benefit
Image Benefit

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Customer Cost

Monetary Cost
Time Cost
Energy Cost
Psychological Cost

Sheth, Newman & Gross


Model
Identifies value dimensions & categorizes

them in order to distinguish between


functional dimensions & sociopsychological dimensions
4 value categories within:
Functional value
Emotional value
Social value
Epistemic value

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Customer Relationship
Management (CRM)
Process used to learn more about

customers needs & behaviours


Jigsaw of pieces of information to be pieced
together to get complete information on
matters related to respective business

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Applications of CRM in Tourism


Improving process of communication with

regular tourists
Providing right deal or package to tourists
Providing right holiday package through
right channel to the tourists
Providing right holiday package during
correct season

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Thank You

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