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You are on page 1of 96

500 BC Babylonians: Abacus -primitive calculator

made of beads

1st century AD: Zero, the Maya; 6th century the

Hindus

1642 B. Pascal: calculating machinery

1832 Ch. Babbage: Babbage Machine

1850: George Boole invents Boolean algebra

permits manipulation of logic statements using mathematics

switches

constructed with relays and vacuum tubes

1945: John von Neumann develops the first stored program

computer

its switching elements are vacuum tubes (a big advance from relays)

18,000 vacuum tubes

several hundred multiplications per minute

enable integration of multiple devices into one package

gateway to modern electronics

1971 Intel: 8008 8-bit m-p., 16kx8 memory , 48 instr.

1973 Intel: 8080

1974 Motorola: 6800, I/O, 65,536 memory, 72 instr.

Cray3

Cray2

Cyber205

Cray1

CDC7600

CDC6600

IBM701

IBM701

UNIVAC1

EDSAC1

50G

1G

500M

120M

10M

1M

80000

3000

500

100

1950

1955

1960

1965

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

RAM

ROM

Micro

processor

Address

Data

Control

Lines

Input

Output

How strong am I?

Only as my weakest muscle..

MPU

Internal Registers:

Data Register, Accumulator, Instruction Reg.

Arithmetic-Logic Unit

Timing & Control Unit

Address, Data, Control Buses

Instruction Decoder

6502 Microprocessor

Internal

Registers:

MPU

Data

Address

Register,

Program

Counter,

Data

Register,

Accumulator,

Instruction

Reg.

ArithmeticLogic Unit

Timing &

Control Unit

Address, Data,

Control Buses

Instruction

Decoder

DAR

PC

DR

ALU

IR

ID

T&C

Control

bus [8]

Analysis versus

Design

Analysis

system / circuit

Design / Synthesis

technical specifications to be met to a system /

circuit diagram

y = f (x)

input

X

Digital Circuit

output

y

behavior of y, design / build system /

circuit f (x)

input

X

Digital Circuit

output

y

1. Information is represented by physical

quantities called signals

2. Electrical signals: voltage, current

3. The signals use two discrete values / ranges

and are therefore said to be binary

Digital systems have inputs and outputs that

are represented by discrete values

+5

0

time

output values, i.e., 0 or +5 V.

Analog systems have inputs and outputs that

take on a continuous range of values

+5

0

time

Digital systems have inherent ability to deal

with electrical signals that have been

degraded by transmission through circuits

The real world operates in an analog fashionthat is continuously;

thus digital systems need interface devices

( sensor, actuators, converters ) to control analog

devices

Convenient to think of digital systems as having only

discrete, digital, input/output values

In reality, real electronic components exhibit

continuous, analog, behavior

Why do we make the digital abstraction anyway?

switches operate this way

easier to think about a small number of discrete values

always resets to 0 or 1

I - Introduction

H. Katz

16

1. Easy storage of information

2. Accuracy and precision

3. Easier to design

4. Programmability

5. Less affected by noise

6. Easier fabrication processes

ADC

Transducer

Analog

input

Digital

system

CPU

DAC

Actuator

TTL standard

Logic 1

+5

+2

Logic 0

+.8

time

Logic levels

Undefined region

is inherent

digital, not analog

amplification,

weak => strong

process, phase of the moon

need noise margin

analog it becomes.

Logic voltage levels decreasing with process

5 -> 3.3 -> 2.5 -> 1.8 V

Standards

TTL

logic 0 (space) less positive than .8 V

RS-232C

logic 0 (space) more positive than +3 V

Logic 1 & 0

Yes

ON

TRUE

HI

mark

No

OFF

FALSE

LOW

space

called HIGH and LOW

4

H

3

2

Volts

OUTPUT

INPUT

Obvious reasons

it is the implementation basis for all modern computing

devices

building large things from small components

provide a model of how a computer works

exposure to parallel computation

2. it offers an interesting counterpoint to software design and is

therefore

useful in furthering our understanding of computation, in

general

3. After this class you can start designing your own digital

devices such as robot controllers or simple digital control

systems

tools to simulate the workings of our designs

logic compilers to synthesize the hardware blocks of our designs

mapping onto programmable hardware

specify algorithm as well as computing/storage resources it will

use

I - Introduction

H. Katz

26

Conventional computer design

CPUs, busses, peripherals

phones, modems, routers

Embedded products

Scientific equipment

than just PCs!

I - Introduction

H. Katz

27

What is design?

choosing appropriately from a collection of available components

while meeting some criteria for size, cost, power, beauty,

elegance, etc.

specified control and/or data manipulation and/or communication

function and the interconnections between them

which logic components to choose? there are many

implementation technologies (e.g., off-the-shelf fixed-function

components, programmable devices, transistors on a chip, etc.)

the design may need to be optimized and/or transformed to meet

design constraints

I - Introduction

H. Katz

28

Collection of devices that sense and/or control wires that carry a

digital value (i.e., a physical quantity that can be interpreted

as a 0 or 1)

example: digital logic where voltage < 0.8v is a 0 and > 2.0v is a 1

example: pair of transmission wires where a 0 or 1 is distinguished by

which wire has a higher voltage (differential)

example: orientation of magnetization signifies a 0 or a 1

is at least one of two wires 1 - make another be 1 (OR)

is a wire 1 - then make another be 0 (NOT)

store a value

recall a previously stored value

sense

AND

I - Introduction

sense

H. Katz

drive

29

design?

shorter and shorter time to market

cheaper and cheaper products

multiple levels of design representation

Scale

Time

programmable rather than fixed function components

automatic synthesis techniques

importance of sound design methodologies

use of simulation to debug designs

simulate and verify before you build

Cost

I - Introduction

H. Katz

30

Binary system -- 0 & 1, LOW & HIGH, negated

and asserted.

Basic building blocks -- AND, OR, NOT

software like PPT, Word, Visio

EE 171:

concepts/skills/abilities

Understanding the basics of logic design (concepts)

Modern specification methods (concepts)

Familiarity with a full set of CAD tools (skills)

Realize digital designs in an implementation technology

(skills)

Appreciation for the differences and similarities (abilities)

in hardware and software design

New ability: to accomplish the logic design task with the aid of computer-ai

design tools and map a problem description into an implementation with

programmable logic devices after validation via simulation and understand

of the advantages/disadvantages as compared to a software implementati

I - Introduction

H. Katz

38

implementation

This class is about physically implementing computation using physical

devices that use voltages to represent logical values

Basic units of computation are:

"0", "1" on a wire

representation:

set of wires (e.g., for binary ints)

x = y

assignment:

x+y5

data operations:

control:

sequential statements:

A; B; C

conditionals:

if x == 1 then y

loops:

for ( i = 1 ; i == 10, i++)

procedures:

A; proc(...); B;

composed into computational structures

I - Introduction

H. Katz

39

physical implementations

action if wire changes to 1):

A

Z

close switch (if A is 1 or asserted)

and turn on light bulb (Z)

Z

open switch (if A is 0 or unasserted)

and turn off light bulb (Z)

Z A

I - Introduction

H. Katz

40

Switches

Compose switches into more complex ones

(Boolean functions):

AND

Z A and B

A

OR

Z A or B

I - Introduction

H. Katz

41

Switching networks

Switch settings

to light

the light bulb

switches (inputs to another network).

a way to connect outputs of one network to the

inputs of the next.

I - Introduction

H. Katz

42

Relay networks

A simple way to convert between conducting paths and

switch settings is to use (electro-mechanical) relays.

What is a relay?

conducting

path composed

of switches

closes circuit

current flowing through coil

magnetizes core and causes normally

closed (nc) contact to be pulled open

when no current flows, the spring of the contact

returns it to its normal position

network?

I - Introduction

H. Katz

43

Transistor networks

CMOS technology

C is for complementary because there are both

normally-open and normally-closed switches

switches

similar, though easier to work with than relays.

I - Introduction

H. Katz

44

MOS transistors

MOS transistors have three terminals: drain,

gate, and source

if the voltage on the gate terminal is (some

amount) higher/lower than the source terminal then

a conducting path will be established between the

drain and source terminals

G

n-channel

open when voltage at G is low

closes when:

voltage(G) > voltage (S) +

I - Introduction

p-channel

closed when voltage at G is low

opens when:

voltage(G) < voltage (S)

H. Katz

45

MOS networks

X

what is the

relationship

between x and y?

3v

Y

0v

0 volts

3 volts

3 volts

0 volts

I - Introduction

H. Katz

46

are these gates?

X

3v

Z1

0v

what is the

relationship

between x, y and z?

x

z1

z2

0 volts 3 volts 3 volts 0 volts

3v

Z2

NAND NOR

0v

I - Introduction

H. Katz

47

What influences the speed of CMOS

networks?

gates of transistors

material

resistance mostly due to transistors

I - Introduction

H. Katz

48

Voltage-controlled resistance

PMOS

NMOS

How CMOS

Inverter

works?

CMOS Inverter

inverter

CMOS inverter

No DC current flow into MOS gate terminal

for switching (CV2f power)

except during switching

Both transistors partially on

Power consumption related

to frequency

Slow input-signal rise times

==> more power

==> equally strong drive in

LOW and HIGH states

The concept of

multiplexer

Truth tables

This is a

truth table

of a

Multiplexer

Logic diagrams

This is a logic

diagram of a

Multiplexer

Transistor-level

circuit diagrams

Multiplexer

Design using

MOS

transistors

S*AN

B*A

Negated S

Prepackaged building blocks, e.g. multiplexer

Equations: Z = SA+ SB

A,B,Z have 4 bits each

Hardware description

languages

Various hardware

description languages

ABEL

VHDL

and work our way up

specification

Switches

Truth tables

Boolean algebra

scope of this class

Gates

Waveforms

Finite state behavior

Register-transfer behavior

Concurrent abstract specifications

I - Introduction

H. Katz

61

binary world

Technology

State 0

State 1

Relay logic

Circuit Open

Circuit Closed

CMOS logic

0.0-1.0 volts

2.0-3.0 volts

Transistor transistor logic (TTL)

0.0-0.8 volts 2.0-5.0 volt

Fiber Optics

Light off

Light on

Dynamic RAM

Discharged capacitor

Charged ca

Nonvolatile memory (erasable)

Trapped electrons

No

Programmable ROM

Fuse blown

Fuse intact

Bubble memory

No magnetic bubble

Bubble pres

Magnetic disk

No flux reversal

Flux reversal

Compact disc

No pit

Pit

I - Introduction

H. Katz

62

A simple model of a digital system is a unit

with inputs and outputs:

inputs

system

outputs

only depend on its input values

I - Introduction

H. Katz

63

Common combinational logic systems have standard symbols

called logic gates

Buffer, NOT

A

AND, NAND

A

B

OR, NOR

A

B

easy to implement

with CMOS transistors

(the switches we have

available and use most)

I - Introduction

H. Katz

64

Sequential logic

Sequential systems

on the current input values, but also on previous input

values

after an input change

why not, and why is it then sequential?

reason (mostly) about steady-state behaviors

look at the outputs only after sufficient time has

elapsed for the system to make its required changes

and settle down

I - Introduction

H. Katz

65

Outputs of a combinational circuit depend only on current

inputs

after sufficient time has elapsed

designers use a form of it when constructing sequential

circuits:

changes in system state are only allowed to occur at specific times

controlled by an external periodic clock

the clock period is the time that elapses between state changes it

must be sufficiently long so that the system reaches a steady-state

before the next state change at the end of the period

I - Introduction

H. Katz

66

sequential logic

Combinational:

input A, B

wait for clock edge

observe C

wait for another clock edge

observe C again: will stay the same

Sequential:

input A, B

wait for clock edge

observe C

wait for another clock edge

observe C again: may be different

I - Introduction

A

C

B

H. Katz

Clock

67

Some we've seen already

transistors as switches

switches as logic gates

use of a clock to realize a synchronous sequential circuit

logic

encoding of signals with more than two logical values into

binary form

state diagrams to represent sequential logic

hardware description languages to represent digital logic

waveforms to represent temporal behavior

I - Introduction

H. Katz

68

An example of abstraction

Calendar subsystem: number of days in a

month (to control watch display)

screen

inputs: month, leap year flag

outputs: number of days

I - Introduction

H. Katz

69

Implementation of calendar

subsystem in software

integer number_of_days ( month,

leap_year_flag) {

switch (month) {

case 1: return (31);

case 2: if (leap_year_flag == 1) then return (29)

else return (28);

case 3: return (31);

...

case 12: return (31);

default: return (0);

}

I - Introduction

H. Katz

70

Implementation

as a subsystem

Implementation

of calendar

combinational

digital system circuit

in hardware

as a combinational

Encoding:

binary number for month

four wires for 28, 29, 30, and 31

Behavior:

combinational

truth table

specification

month

leap

month

0000

0001

0010

0010

0011

0100

0101

0110

0111

1000

1001

1010

1011

1100

1101

111

leap

0

1

d28

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

d29

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

d30

0

0

0

0

1

0

1

0

0

1

0

1

0

d31

1

0

0

1

0

1

0

1

1

0

1

0

1

d28d29d30d31

I - Introduction

H. Katz

71

d28 = 1 when month=0010 and leap=0

d28 = m8'm4'm2m1'leap'

symbol

for not

... month=1100

d31 = (m8'm4'm2'm1) + (m8'm4'm2m1)

+ ... (m8m4m2'm1')

d31 = can we simplify more?

symbol

for and

I - Introduction

symbol

for or

month

0001

0010

0010

0011

0100

...

1100

1101

111

0000

leap

0

1

d28

0

1

0

0

0

d29

0

0

1

0

0

d30

0

0

0

0

1

d31

1

0

0

1

0

H. Katz

72

d28 = m8'm4'm2m1'leap

d29 = m8'm4'm2m1'leap

d30 = (m8'm4m2'm1') + (m8'm4m2m1') +

(m8m4'm2'm1) + (m8m4'm2m1)

= (m8'm4m1') + (m8m4'm1)

d31 = (m8'm4'm2'm1) + (m8'm4'm2m1) +

(m8'm4m2'm1) + (m8'm4m2m1) +

(m8m4'm2'm1') + (m8m4'm2m1') +

(m8m4m2'm1')

Activity

How much can we simplify d31?

m8 is 0 and m1 is 1, or m8 is 1 and m1 is 0

d31 = m8m1 + m8m1

month is 8 or more and even (8, 10, 12, and includes 14)

Activity

d31 is true if:

m8 is 0 and m1 is 1, or m8 is 1 and m1 is 0

d31 = m8m1 + m8m1

month is 8 or more and even (8, 10, 12, and includes 14)

(i.e., January is 0000 and December is 1011)

d31 = m8m4m2m1 + m8m4m2m1 + m8m4m2m1 + m8m4m2m1

+ m8m4m2m1 + m8m4m2m1 + m8m4m2m1

d31 = (d28 + d29 + d30)

d28 = m8'm4'm2m1'leap

d29 = m8'm4'm2m1'leap

d30 = (m8'm4m2'm1') + (m8'm4m2m1') +

(m8m4'm2'm1) + (m8m4'm2m1)

d31 = (m8'm4'm2'm1) + (m8'm4'm2m1) +

(m8'm4m2'm1) + (m8'm4m2m1) +

(m8m4'm2'm4') + (m8m4'm2m1') +

(m8m4m2'm1')

I - Introduction

H. Katz

76

Another example of

combinational circuit

Door combination lock:

if there is an error the lock must be reset; once the

door opens the lock must be reset

outputs:

outputs door open/close

memory: must remember combination

or always have it available as an input

I - Introduction

H. Katz

77

integer combination_lock ( ) {

integer v1, v2, v3;

integer error = 0;

static integer c[3] = 3, 4, 2;

while (!new_value( ));

v1 = read_value( );

if (v1 != c[1]) then error = 1;

while (!new_value( ));

v2 = read_value( );

if (v2 != c[2]) then error = 1;

while (!new_value( ));

v3 = read_value( );

if (v2 != c[3]) then error = 1;

if (error == 1) then return(0); else return (1);

I - Introduction

H. Katz

78

system

Encoding:

how many values in sequence?

how do we know a new input value is entered?

how do we represent the states of the system?

Behavior:

to look at inputs

(i.e., they have settled after change)

sequential: sequence of values

must be entered

sequential: remember if an error occurred clock

finite-state specification

new

value

reset

state

open/closed

I - Introduction

H. Katz

79

abstract control

Finite-state diagram

states: 5 states

each state has outputs

changes of state occur when clock says its ok

based on value of inputs

output: open/closed

ERR

closed

C1!=value

& new

S1

reset

closed

closed

C1=value

& new

not new

I - Introduction

S2

C2!=value

& new

S3

C3!=value

& new

closed

C2=value

& new

not new

OPEN

open

C3=value

& new

not new

H. Katz

80

data-path vs. control

Internal structure

data-path

comparators

control

control for data-path

state changes controlled by clock

new

value

C1

C2

multiplexer

C3

mux

control

equal

reset

controller

clock

comparator

equal

I - Introduction

open/closed

H. Katz

81

finite-state machine

Finite-state machine

ERR

closed

not equal

& new

reset

not equal

not equal

& new

& new

S1

S2

S3

OPEN

closed

closed

closed

open

mux=C1 equal mux=C2 equal mux=C3 equal

& new

& new

& new

not new

I - Introduction

not new

not new

H. Katz

82

finite-state machine

Finite-state machine

reset

reset

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

new

0

1

1

0

1

1

0

1

1

I - Introduction

equal

0

1

0

1

0

1

state

S1

S1

S1

S2

S2

S2

S3

S3

S3

OPEN

ERR

next

state

S1

S1

ERR

S2

S2

ERR

S3

S3

ERR

OPEN

OPEN

ERR

closed

not equal

not equal not equal

& new

& new

& new

S1

S2

S3

OPEN

closed

closed

closed

open

mux=C1 equal mux=C2 equal mux=C3 equal

& new

& new

& new

not new

mux

C1

C1

C2

C2

C3

C3

ERR

not new

not new

open/closed

closed

closed

closed

closed

closed

closed

closed

closed

closed

open

open

closed

H. Katz

83

encoding

Encode state table

and as many as 5: 00001, 00010, 00100, 01000, 10000

choose 4 bits: 0001, 0010, 0100, 1000, 0000

choose 3 bits: 001, 010, 100

choose 1 bits: 1, 0

I - Introduction

H. Katz

84

encoding

Encode state table

choose 1 bits: 1, 0

I - Introduction

reset

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

new

0

1

1

0

1

1

0

1

1

equal

0

1

0

1

0

1

state

0001

0001

0001

0010

0010

0010

0100

0100

0100

1000

0000

next

state

0001

0001

0000

0010

0010

0000

0100

0100

0000

1000

1000

0000

mux

001

001

010

010

100

100

open/closed

0

0

0

good choice of encoding!

0

0

mux is identical to

0

last 3 bits of state

0

0

open/closed is

0

identical to first bit

1

of state

1

0

H. Katz

85

Activity

Have lock always wait for 3 key presses

exactly before making a decision

remove reset

not new

not new

E2

closed

not equal

& new

E3

new

not equal

& new

closed

new

ERR

closed

not equal

& new

S1

S2

S3

closed

closed

closed

mux=C1 equal mux=C2 equal mux=C3 equal

& new

& new

& new

not new

I - Introduction

not new

OPEN

open

not new

H. Katz

86

controller implementation

new

mux

control

equal

called a register, for

remembering inputs

when told to by clock

reset

controller

clock

open/closed

mux

control

comb. logic

state

clock

open/closed

I - Introduction

H. Katz

87

Design hierarchy

system

control

data-path

code

registers multiplexer comparator

register

state

registers

combinational

logic

logic

switching

networks

I - Introduction

H. Katz

88

Summary

and sequential networks effectively organizing the

design hierarchically

doing so with a modern set of design tools that lets

us handle large designs effectively

taking advantage of optimization opportunities

I - Introduction

H. Katz

89

Number Systems

Roman Empire: more systematic notation I, II,

III, IV, V, VI, VII.VIII, IX, X, C, D, M

Concept of zero by

Maya- I century, Hindu-V century

octal, etc..

Positional-Value System

The value of a digit (digit from Latin word for

finger) depends on its position

Positional values

2 1 0

(weights)

10 10 10

-1

-2

-3

10 10 10

5 6 7 . 9 1 4

MSD

Decimal

point

We will write ( 5 6 7. 9 1 4)10

LSD

Binary:

Base-2 Number System

5 4 3 2 1 0

2 2 2 2 2 2

-1 -2 -3

2 2 2

1 0 1 1 1 1 . 0 0 1

We write: ( 1 0 1 1 1 1 . 0 0 1 )2

Digits are called bits

Conversion ( ) I

( )10

add all terms using decimal addition

( )2

( )4

( )8

( )16

which is base-2^z, group digits together by

z and convert each group separately

100111.1010 ---> ( )16

. A

Convert ( ) 10

( )r

Integer part:

by r

accumulate the remainders

Fractional part:

accumulate the integers

and Gapinski

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