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• Introduction
• Literature Review
• Methodology
• Case Studies
• Conclusion

Groundwater g 3.  Pollution escalades from the activities mankind. Pollution as a result of human activities . Arsenic Poisoning in Bangladesh Fig 2.INTRODUCTION Essential need for the sustenance of li and mankind as a whole. Fig 1.

.INTRODUCTION Fig 4. The GPR method.

imaged. Other applications mapping contaminants (Daniels et. which are very useful in understanding and describing heterogeneity of the subsurface (Olhoeft. and Udphuay et al. al. is currently highly subjective and based primarily on an interpreter’s ability to recognize patterns in a radar image.. GPR waves are sensitive to contrasts in dielectric properties. GPR’s high frequency results in high resolution which makes it sensitive to geometry. Attributes commonly calculated for seismic data can be extracted from GPR data. 2000) • The interpretation of GPR reflection data.. . 1991. 1995. • GPR is used to map geologic conditions that include depth to bedrock. and structure. however. Guy et. 2010. 2010). depth and thickness of soil and sediment strata on land and under fresh water bodies (Beres and Haeni. al. depth to the water table (Knoll et. 1991b). and characterized. and the location of subsurface cavities and fractures in bedrock. texture.LITERATURE REVIEW • The GPR is a geophysical method of obtaining information about the subsurface with extremely high resolution. and steepness event) can enhance the accuracy and confidence of subsurface structural interpretations (Böniger and Tronicke.. al. 1997). 1997). such changes can be detected. 1991a.. instantaneous amplitude. Smith and Jol. Visualization of certain GPR data attributes (such as energy.

(After John Milsom 2011) 1. Typical Dielectric Constant. The GPR survey illustration.METHODOLOGY g 5. Conductivity and Velocity Value of Common Materials and M .

Radar Tomography Fig 6. A Block Diagram of a GPR System Fig 8.METHODOLOGY Fig 7. Various Borehole Measurements (a) Single-Hole Measurement and (b) Cross-Hole Measurements .

Wide-Angle Reflection and Refraction (WARR) Sounding (Reynolds 1997) . Mono-static Mode Antenna(Radar reflection profi Fig 11. Bi-static Mode Antenna (Radar reflection profiling) Fig 10.METHODOLOGY .

METHODOLOGY Fig 12. • Velocity plays a crucial role in GPR processing and interpretation. .Basic Processes in the Processing and Interpretation of a GPR • GPR’s processing stages bearing striking resemblance with that of seismic reflection. Common Midpoint (CMP) Sounding (Reynolds 1997) Table 2 .

tion algorithms operate on the entire data set rather than individual traces (Figu e usually the last to be applied. in the processing centre. and high-cut filters. because time-variant unctions distort wavelets and must be applied with care if ude integrity is to be preserved. using SEC ical and exponential compensation) filters based on physical models subsurface. GPR data are passed through low-cut filters. comes after any frequency-based filtering. to remove due to inductive effects and the limitations in instrument frequency nse. .METHODOLOGY PROCESSING OF GPR DATA stacking. pensation. for propagation effects. but data are normally stored in unmodified form. to eliminate noise spikes. producing s for quality control. decrease in signal amplitude with time is then reversed by time-variant amplifica matic gain control (AGC) is used to do this in the field.

(a) The raw data. . with hyperbolic responses from the bars.METHODOLOGY PROCESSING OF GPR DATA Fig 13. (c) The energy envelope produced by a Hilbert transform. (After John Milsom 2011). Example of processing used to image steel reinforcing bars in a concrete slab. (b) Migration has been used to collapse the hyperbolic tails and highlight the reflection sources.

1-m orthogonal grid to locate a safe area to drill a hole through a reinforced concrete s unprocessed data are presented as a 3D cube showing X and Y image sections. No data processing other than and selection of interpolation parameters was required. In the centr in the Z plane) has been selected to highlight a conduit cross-cutting the slab. The location ed drill hole is shown (right) superimposed on the data cube.METHODOLOGY INTERPRETATION OF GPR DATA hree-dimensional (3D) display of a high-resolution ground penetrating radar (GPR) d a 0. and nobody was hurt in the makin .

If the capillary zone is thick with respect to the wavele e rate of charge if relative dielectric constant with depth through this zone is sma ct of this is that. and others whe reason for this is that the ratio of the thickness of the capillary zone to the wave dent radiowaves need to be small (i. for each incremental increase in the relative dielectric constant on of the incident energy is reflected so that the total reflected energy is smeare llary zone and hence the resulting reflection amplitude is too low to be detected ity. .e d<wavelenght) in order to provide sufficien in relative dielectic constant between the unsaturated and saturated material to cant proportion of energy.METHODOLOGY INTERPRETATION OF GPR DATA IMPORTANT TO NOTE re situations when the water table is detectable on a radargram.

Location of study area. . (Ziaqiang Zhu et al. HUNAN PROVINCE. 2009) Changd e Fig 15.. CHINA.GPR EXPLORATION FOR GROUND WATER AND ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES IN CHANGDE CITY. A conceptual model of the water saturation profile in the subs oject was carried out to differentiate between the capillary fringe and the satura attention was paid to the central frequency used for this purpose. Fig 16.

HUNAN PROVINCE. .GPR EXPLORATION FOR GROUND WATER AND ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES IN CHANGDE CITY. (Ziaqiang Zhu et al. CHINA. A frequency is centered in 400 MHz. 2009) PR sections at profile show changes in the electromagnetic signal during the exploration..

(Ziaqiang Zhu et al.. HUNAN PROVINCE.GPR EXPLORATION FOR GROUND WATER AND ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES IN CHANGDE CITY. GPR sections at profile show changes in the electromagnetic signal during the exploratio Antenna frequency is centered in 400 MHz. CHINA. 2009) 8. .

note that beyond 10 m.GPR exploration for groundwater in a crystalline rock terrain: A case study of the district of Petro´polis (Brazil). . Work done with the GPR in Crystalline terrain is very rare. CMP profile at the studied spring. 20. Fig 19.. • Water exploration will not be associated with extensive/continuous reflections. Subsurface reflectors represented by hyperbolas. Location of study area. The groundwave is represented by the ond straight line. this e is highly attenuated. 2004) • Most GPR acquisition is done in sedimentary terrain. The ave is represented by the first straight line me. (Jandyr de Menezes Travassos et al.

migration untied the bowties on the section and turn them into dipping A producing well. PR time section on crystalline rock.07 m/ns is assumed t.01 to 0. 2004) Fig 21. Compare with (a).15 m/ns. with static hydrostatic level at 4.GPR exploration for groundwater in a crystalline rock terrain: A case study of the district of Petro´polis (Brazil).. . (b) Same GPR section and converted to depth. specially between traces 40 the profile.001 m/ns ste from 0. everal diffraction patterns (bowties) ns. (Jandyr de Menezes Travassos et al.9 m depth is located at trace 32 m. a uniform Vr = 0. Velocity analysis for the CMP profi Velocity is incremented in 0.

22.GPR exploration for groundwater in a crystalline rock terrain: A case study of the district of Petro´polis (Brazil). . (Jandyr de Menezes Travassos et al.. The F’s are interpreted as fractures an is interpreted as a boudin structure. 2004) Interpretation of the radar section shown in Fig.

This can obscure and complicate the reflection profile. . • Relatively easy to carry out. • Expensive • Shallow depth of penetration.Merits/Demerits of GPR MERITS • Very good resolution at shallow depth of penetration. the energy may encounter air pockets and reflect these in the data. DEMERITS • In very loose snow pack or areas where trees create void spaces in the snow. so extra care is needed during interpretation.

The method has proven successful in those works cited in this paper (report). GPR provides a 3-D pseudo-image that can easily be converted to depths that are accurate down to a few centimeters. • The GPR method has also proven useful in the determination of contamination in water which is directly linked to the study of the environment. The GPR method is highly useful in both sedimentary and crystalline environments for the exploration of groundwater. – 3. GPR responds to both metallic and non-metallic objects. . and – 2.CONCLUSION • GPR has two major advantages over most other noninvasive geophysical techniques: – 1.