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ME 6408
Advanced Mechatronics
Instructor: Professor I. Charles Ume
Hall effect Sensors
Variable Reluctance Sensor
Ultrasonic Sensors (Sonic Distance Sensors)
Photo Interrupt
Pressure Sensors


Hall Effect Sensors

• Developed by
Edwin Hall in 1879;
and hence the
name Hall effect

Hall Effect Sensor Sensing a Shaft Speed

• Used to:
– provide noncontact
means to detect and
measure magnetic



How they work

• Presence of magnetic field
deflects electrons flowing
through conductive material

Depiction principle of the
Hall Effect

• As electrons move to one end
of conductive material:
– Potential is developed in
direction perpendicular to gross
current flow
– Potential indicates strength of
magnetic field


Georgia GeorgiaTech Tech Advanced . Mechatronics.ME8843 Applications • IC Engine Electronic Ignition Systems – Used to determine position of cam shaft • Brushless DC Motor Control – Sensors determine position of permanent magnet rotor • Assembly Lines – To determine shaft position and velocity – As contactless limit switches • Current Sensing ICs – Electrically isolated alternative to shunt resistors AdvancedMechatronics.

Georgia GeorgiaTech Tech Advanced .ME8843 Hall Effect Sensor Types • Linear Hall Effect Sensors – Output is proportional to magnetic field strength • Hall Effect Digital Switches – Presence of magnetic field above threshold turns switch on – Presence of magnetic field below threshold turns switch off • Hall Effect Digital Latches – North field turns latch on – South field turns latch off AdvancedMechatronics. Mechatronics.

jpg AdvancedMechatronics. latching and switching sensors • Great sampling policy SIP http://www.ME8843 Packaging and Manufacturers • ICs – Analog Devices: • AD22151G from Analog Devices SOT23 – Allegro art_Numbers/1120/pinout. • Wide range of linear. Mechatronics.gif – cument/1/5/4/0/3/5/document_C3697B35C930-CB7C-FE090DFFCE61FB22.allegromicro. GeorgiaTech Tech Advanced . many more Hall Effect Sensor Module http://sensing. many more • Packaged units – Honeywell – Many.

Mechatronics. not magnetic fields AdvancedMechatronics.ME8843 Implementation and Words of Warning • Sensors may be affected by temperature variation. • Sensors may be directional: – Care must be taken with respect to orientations of sensor and magnet • Some Hall Effect sensors detect presence of ferromagnetic materials.Georgia GeorgiaTech Tech Advanced . – Some sensors incorporate circuitry to reduce this error.

ME8843 Variable Reluctance Sensors • Used to measure speed and/or position of moving metallic object • Sense change of magnetic reluctance (analogous to electrical resistance) near sensing element • Require conditioning circuitry to yield a useful signal (e.g.) Industrial Variable Reluctance Sensor http://www. LM1815 from National Semi.jpg 2.Georgia GeorgiaTech Tech Advanced . Mechatronics.motionsensors.

Georgia GeorgiaTech Tech Advanced .jpg AdvancedMechatronics. vr.drawing. Mechatronics.ME8843 How Variable Reluctance Sensors Work • Magnet in sensor creates magnetic field • As ferrous object moves by sensor – Resulting change in magnetic flux induces emf in pickup coil Variable Reluctance Sensor Construction Typical Configuration

me.ME8843 Typical Application • Shaft velocity sensor for ABS/traction control • Crank and cam shaft position sensors Sensor Schematic Installed on CV axle http://www.Georgia GeorgiaTech Tech Advanced .gatech.JPG AdvancedMechatronics. 6.

– Dictates ferrous material must be moving for sensor to generate signal. • Output voltage is dependent on velocity of toothed wheel – Performance may be reduced at slow speeds AdvancedMechatronics.ME8843 Interfacing Concerns • Emf is proportional to rate of change of magnetic flux. Mechatronics.Georgia GeorgiaTech Tech Advanced .

ultrasound transducer will turn sound waves into electrical energy which can be measured and displayed • Ultrasound are sound waves above normal range of human hearing (greater than 20K hertz).ME8843 Ultrasonic Transducer • Ultrasonic transducer (piezoelectric transducer) is device that converts electrical energy into ultrasound • Upon receiving sound echo (pressure wave) back from surface.Georgia GeorgiaTech Tech Advanced . Mechatronics. AdvancedMechatronics.

same crystal can be used as an ultrasonic generator and detector  Some systems use separate transmitter and receiver components while others combine both in single piezoelectric transceiver Alternative methods for creating and detecting ultrasound include magnetostriction and capacitive actuation.ME8843 Since piezoelectric crystal generates voltage when force is applied to it. Pulse echo sensor Transmit-Receive sensor AdvancedMechatronics. Mechatronics.Georgia GeorgiaTech Tech Advanced .

Georgia GeorgiaTech Tech Advanced .ME8843 • Sound is transmitted through propagation of pressure in air • Speed of sound in air is normally 331 m/sec at 0oC and 343 m/sec at 20oC for dry air • Digital signal processor embedded in sensor calculates distance between sensor and object AdvancedMechatronics. Mechatronics.

Georgia GeorgiaTech Tech Advanced .ME8843  X = vsound . Mechatronics.5 (time of flight)  X is distance between sensor head and object  Range of sensor varies between 5 cm to 20 m  Sensor is not appropriate for very short distance measurements  Frequency response (distance measurement update rate) varies with distance measured – In general. it is about 100 Hz AdvancedMechatronics. t  Where:  Vsound is known  t = 0.

Georgia GeorgiaTech Tech Advanced .ME8843 • Piezoelectric crystals have property of changing size when voltage is applied • Applying alternating current (AC) across them causes them to oscillate at very high frequencies – Producing very high frequency sound waves • Ultrasonic sensors work on principle similar to radar or sonar – Radar and Sonar evaluate attributes of target •Interpreting echoes from radio or sound waves respectively AdvancedMechatronics. Mechatronics.

AdvancedMechatronics.Georgia GeorgiaTech Tech Advanced . Mechatronics.ME8843 Applications Medical:  Medical ultrasonic transducers (probes):  Come in variety of different shapes and sizes for use in making pictures of different parts of body  Transducer may be:  Passed over surface of body or  Inserted into body opening such as rectum or woman’s reproductive organ  Clinicians who perform ultrasound-guided procedures often use probe positioning system to hold the ultrasonic transducer.

ME8843  Technology can be used for measuring: – wind speed and direction (anemometer). and etc AdvancedMechatronics. • Other applications include: – in robots for obstacle avoidance – burglar alarms – non-destructive testing. Mechatronics. – speed through air or water – fullness of tank – amount of liquid in tank • sensor measures distance to surface of fluid.Georgia GeorgiaTech Tech Advanced .

ME8843 • Laser Ultrasound System Nd:YAG pulsed laser:     Repetition rate: 20 Hz Pulse Width: 10 ns Pulse Energy: 45-450 mJ/pulse Beam Diameter: 6 mm Control Box Nd:YAG Laser  Positioning Stage:  Resolution: 50 μm  Electro-Magnetic Acoustic Transducer (EMAT):  Bandwidth: 200 kHz-2.5 MHz  Data Acquisition Card:  Resolution: 14 bit  Sampling Rate: 125 MHz Positioning Axis-lead screw EMAT and Preamp AdvancedMechatronics.Georgia GeorgiaTech Tech Advanced Data Acquisition and User Interface . Mechatronics.

and control unit  Generated ultrasounds traveling through weld seams are received by EMAT  System resolution not yet determined. computer software.4 mm void  Used system to inspect 180 mm long weld bead at 1 mm increment in 26 secs  Type of defects: Lack of penetration. Mechatronics. data acquisition card. stepper motor driven linear screw. and Short leg Mirror 2 Lens Mirror 3 Beam Delivery Sample Incident Laser Beam EMAT Mirror 1 Preamp AdvancedMechatronics. Blow hole.Automated Weld Inspection System ME8843  System consists of laser. beam delivery subsystem. GeorgiaTech Tech EMAT Linear Screw Georgia Laser Advanced . electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT). but has been used to detect 0.

Georgia GeorgiaTech Tech Advanced Amkor Super BGA . Mechatronics.ME8843 Identifications of Solder Bump Defects in Chip Packages Examples of Emerging Microelectronic Packages: 3-D Packaging: Stacked Die Chip Scale Package Quad Flat Package (QFP) Total Bumps: 560 Flip Chip Ball Grid Array (BGA) AdvancedMechatronics.

Georgia GeorgiaTech Tech Poor wetting.Optical ME8843 Micrographs of Good and Bad Solder Bump Cross Sections Good Solder Bump Head-in-Pillow defects Advanced Mechatronics. Two medium size voidsAdvanced near the interface connection . an intermittent Mechatronics.

Optical micrographs of Good and Bad Solder Bump Cross Sections ME8843 Pad crater with crack initiating at the trace Crack initiates at the edge of the pad Inspection of solder bumps is crucial process in microelectronics manufacturing industry. AdvancedMechatronics. Mechatronics.Georgia GeorgiaTech Tech Advanced .

•Trigger source: Laser output •Sample depth: 2048 samples (~ 82 μsec @ 25 MHz) •Voltage Range: ±100 mV (~ ±5 nm) •Signal Averaging: 4–128 avgs. 8–bit grayscale CCD •1/10 th pixel software resolution.) • Larger mounting surface (326 x 326 mm) • Larger travel (200 x 200 mm) F •Stiff.Georgia GeorgiaTech Tech Advanced Vibrometer Autofocus System •Hands free autofocus system to increase repeatability and throughput •Customizable focusing algorithms for different kinds of chip package •Remote operable •Serial interface with MATLAB for fully automated testing I •Average refocus time: 3 sec .6-8. pre-loaded linear motion components •Linear encoder measurement (1μm res. rubber/metal fiber jacketing •Variable excitation spot (0. 5 mm viewing window C • Possible sub-micron resolution Model: New Wave Research Polaris II Wavelength: 1064 nm or 532nm with SHG Repetition Rate:1~20 Hz variable Pulse Width: 4-5 ns Pulse Energy: 45mJ/pulse. preloaded bearings • Integral X/Y table designed with wide base to increase stiffness •Higher bidirectional repeatability (< ±6 μm.Intelligent Laser Ultrasound Inspection System ME8843 Laser Beam Delivery: •High-quality fiber face polish with fiber injection optics •Stable laser injection optical mount •Rugged.) • High precision (±10 μm) G Polytec Laser Doppler Vibrometer •Heterodyne interferometer capable of displacement measurements •50 nm/Volt analog output •150 nm full scale output (peak to peak) •Operating Frequency Range: 50 kHz to 25 MHz •Lower cutoff frequency: 25 kHz (-3 dB).H rolloff 40 dB/dec AdvancedMechatronics. E • High stiffness. Mechatronics. optical attenuator adjustable D Typical Data Acquisition Parameters •Sampling rate: 25 MHz @ 12-Bit res.0 mm2) •Excitation standoff distance > 50 mm A Fiber-coupled sensor head •16 mm aperture •3 μm minimum spot diameter •Variable standoff distance via autofocus system B DVT SmartImage Sensor •PC programmable stand-alone image processing sensor •Fiducial coordinates sent to PC through serial port •640 x 480 pixel resolution.

Mechatronics.Laser Ultrasound Inspection (LUI) System ME8843 3 US Patents Have Been Issued & 2 Pending AdvancedMechatronics.Georgia GeorgiaTech Tech Advanced .

ME8843 Photo Interrupt • Uses emitter and detector photo diode pair • With no obstruction detector is high • When an object blocks the light the detector is low • Advantages – Simple to interface – Inexpensive – Reliable AdvancedMechatronics. Mechatronics.Georgia GeorgiaTech Tech Advanced .

Mechatronics.ME8843 Photo Interrupt Types • Wide variety of packages and orientations • Types – Logic (digital ±5 volts) – Transistor/diode (analog) • Manufacturers – Fairchild – Honeywell AdvancedMechatronics.Georgia GeorgiaTech Tech Advanced .

ME8843 Photo Interrupt Applications • Encoder wheel for angular measurements.Georgia GeorgiaTech Tech Advanced . • Computer mouse with a ball AdvancedMechatronics. Mechatronics.

Georgia GeorgiaTech Tech Advanced .ME8843 Photo Interrupt Applications • Detect holes or slots for positioning of liner slides – Elevators • Detect the location of products on and assembly line AdvancedMechatronics. Mechatronics.

ME8843 Pressure Sensors • Used to detect pressure of fluids or gasses. • Most have analog outputs that need amplification – Some have built-in amplifiers for direct connection into microcontroller AdvancedMechatronics. Mechatronics.Georgia GeorgiaTech Tech Advanced . • Technologies (many) – Strain gage – Piezoresistive – Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) • Each sensor has a pressure range that it works in.

ME8843 Pressure Sensors Types • Differential Pressure – Difference between two or more pressures introduced as inputs to the sensing unit – 2 input • Absolute/Gage Pressure – The pressure relative to perfect vacuum pressure or set pressure (like pressure at sea level) – 1 input AdvancedMechatronics. Mechatronics.Georgia GeorgiaTech Tech Advanced .

A small amount of air in the tube right before the sensor will create a barrier from the liquid. AdvancedMechatronics. Mechatronics. most sensors are not rated to have unclean liquids contact the sensor components.Georgia GeorgiaTech Tech Advanced .ME8843 Pressure Sensors Applications • Measure pressure of gas or fluids • Measure altitude – For plains or weather balloons • Measure flow – pressure sensors in conjunction with the venturi effect to measure flow • Measure depth of water – When measuring liquids.

2 or 3 axis configurations – With 3 axis it gives a vector of the accelerations direction (after Advanced Mechatronics. GeorgiaTech Tech Advanced Mechatronics.ME8843 Accelerometers • Used to measure acceleration – Common SI units meters/second2 (m/s2) or popularly in terms of g-force (1 g is earth’s gravity) • At rest an acceleration will measure 1 g in the vertical direction • They can come in 1. Georgia accounting for gravity) .

– This can be used to measure angle the of tilt • Each sensor has a range that it works in.ME8843 Accelerometers • Because of earth’s gravity. the sensor will read 1 to 0 g as the sensor is rotated from being vertical to horizontal. • Most have analog outputs that need amplification – Some have built-in amplifiers for direct connection into microcontroller AdvancedMechatronics.Georgia GeorgiaTech Tech Advanced . Mechatronics.

• This deflection is measured in an analog or digital manner – Commonly the capacitance between a set of fixed beams and a set of beams attached to the proof mass is measured.Georgia GeorgiaTech Tech Advanced .ME8843 Accelerometers How they work • Mechanically the accelerometer behaves as a mass-damper-spring system – Many use Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). Which use very small cantilever beams with masses on them • Under the influence of gravity or acceleration. the proof mass deflects from its neutral position. Mechatronics. – Integrating piezoresistors in the springs to detect spring deformation is another method AdvancedMechatronics.

Georgia GeorgiaTech Tech Advanced . – The integration process is not precise and introduces error into the velocity and position. vibration and shocks. • Used in electronics like the Wii and iPhone for user input. Mechatronics.ME8843 Accelerometers Applications • Can be used to sense orientation. • Acceleration integrated once gives velocity. AdvancedMechatronics. integrated a second time gives position.