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We discuss mosquito vectors and models with respect to a subgroup of the mosquito-borne flaviviruses .

Falvivirus are very small and composed of a positive single-strand RNA and can cause Encephalitis

JEV serocomplex within the Flavivirus genus contains several zoonotic sources of encephalitis

Wild wading birds (such as herons or bitterns) are the primary amplifying hosts, although over 91 bird
species are known to be hosts of JEV. In urban areas swine are the dominant reservoirs.

The primary vector of JEV is the mosquito species Culex tritaeniorhynchus, but secondary vectors of JEV
include Culex gelidus, Culex fuscocephala, and Culex annulirostris. Rice fields are the most favorable

Three different vaccines for JEV are in use

It has the potential to quickly cross large distances as it can infect migratory birds

WNV infection was found in more than 61 species of mosquitoes as well as numerous other arthropod
species such as ticks- primary vector are of Culex genus, different species in different areas of the world.
In North America, transmission is highest in agricultural and urban habitats

Usutu Virus (USUV) is first found in USA but became famous after invasion in Europe through Austria,
where it reached mostly by birds

In 2009, USUV first demonstrated pathogenicity in humans with neuro invasive infections in Italy and apart
from bird, it has been isolated from both Culex and Aedes mosquito species

Murray Valley Encephalitis first discovered in Australia. The main amplifying hosts are birds, while the main
vector is Culex annulirostris

The major encephalitic virus in the Americas, St. Louis Encephalitis. Birds serve as the primary reservoir
and Culex mosquitoes as transmission vectors

Culex genus and the Aedes genus are of concern for the JEV viruses, although Culex much more so. From
rural and wild landscapes in Asia to the heart of Chicago, Culex species are found around the world.

Culex species have been characterized through their distributions, genetic relationships, abilities to
overwinter viruses, host preferences, mating behaviors, and virus competencies

Aedes mosquitoes are primary vectors of several of the mosquito-borne flaviviruses including dengue and
yellow fever

Aedes aegypti is not known as a vector for any virus of the JEV serocomplex, yet one study has shown that
Aedes aegypti, once infected, are capable of transmitting WNV through their bite

Asian Tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus is competent for at least 22 arboviruses, including WNV and USUV

Aedes albopictus in its success as a rural maintenance vector of arboviruses is able to replace populations
of Aedes aegypti in all but urban environments and susceptible to WNV more than Culex pipiens.

 They use difference equations instead of DE.  Computations are very complex in stochastic models than their deterministic counterparts. In general.Model Types  Mosquito population models fall broadly into two categories. This feature permits mathematically optimal solutions for the control of vectors and disease outbreaks  Stochastic models are used to capture Uncertainty in model parameters and internal processes. Mosquito movements can be described as exponential stochastic processes. mechanistic models generally use a set of differential equations to describe realistic processes evolving through time  The growth stages can be modeled with compartments. . But extra care should be taken to avoid unrealistic outcomes when using deterministic models. stochastic models can more realistically represent real processes than deterministic models  Deterministic. deterministic and stochastic  Stochastic models usually produce ranges for each output and require more computational resources than comparable deterministic models. where a mosquito advances from one compartment to the next  Basic Reproductive Ratio and Equilibrium analysis to predict the possibility of Epidemic  Deterministic models are analytical and One advantage of the analytical nature of some of these models is their suitability for optimization.

 maturation rates. and rainfall  When the model includes a mosquito-borne virus. the host portion of the model becomes irrelevant. biting rates. . vegetation. egg-laying rates. mortality. only 3-5 are differed in last 40 years. sub-models of all hosts with relevant demographic and disease parameters and the vector-host interactions should be added  As the mosquito life cycle is fast enough compared to host. extrinsic incubation period.  Among the 15 basic assumptions on RM model. and virus transmission efficiencies are important parameters to be modeled  They depend on temperature.

East Asia. Southeast Asia. and the Pacific  Caused by zoophilic mosquito species as Culex tritaeniorrhynchus and gelidus  Though main reservoir is waddling birds. During the period of high mosquito density spraying can break transmission cycle .  JEV mainly occurs in epidemics  JE is found both in temperate and tropical regions  JE was likely introduced into northern Australia by windblown mosquitoes from Papua New Guinea  Main control is live attenuated vaccine that is costly  Vaccination pig a good way.Past. but they are not effective in baby pigs because of the maternal antibody  Environmental management for alternative drying and wetting can reduce their breeding as well as increase rice yields  Chemical control plays a marginal role in JE control. Present. they spills over pigs and domestic animal as well as human. and Future of Japanese Encephalitis  Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a vector-borne viral disease that occurs in South Asia.

First.  Pig production is doubled in China in 15 years and rice production is increased by 22% in 40 years  People living near irrigated rice fields are potentially at increased risk of infection  Largest irrigated rice area is India. North Korea and Japan  If rice cultivation and pig production are both present then the force of infection will be very stronger  Discovered 125 years ago. have increased both in cropping area and cropping intensity. followed by China. JE-endemic countries experienced an unprecedented population growth in recent decades and Second. pig rearing has grown exponentially and rice-production systems. JE has spread widely in the 20th century even though vaccine are being used  High-quality data on transmission and incidence of JE are lacking in various countries . Genetic studies suggest that JEV originated from an ancestral virus in the area of the Malay Archipelago  JE appeared as recurring encephalitis outbreaks in the summer season  Nearly half of the human population currently lives in countries where JEV occurs  In places where control measures such as vaccination. particularly irrigated rice farming. Bangladesh and Thailand  Pig production is reduced in Malaysia.  The situation in North Korea. Myanmar. Pakistan. and Papua New Guinea remains largely unknown  The emergence of JE can probably be explained by 2 factors. clinic are not in place JE is increasing and other places they are declining or stable.

. But privatization of market based economy has adverse effect on it.  2) pig immunization and the separation of pig rearing from human settlements. as vaccination levels increase with it.g. and we anticipate that this trend will continue in the long term  Incidence of JE is coincident with the economic growth.  Muslim countries such as Bangladesh and Pakistan have traditionally been JE free but they are poor and highly populated and have high rice cultivation.. severe JE outbreaks could occur in the near future because of the increased pig farming and rice cultivation.  The overall trend of JE has been declining over the past 3 decades.  3) changes in agricultural practices (e. better housing and urbanization)  JE incidence is increasing mainly in low income countries because of the paucity of JE immunization programs  Cambodia.g. and Myanmar. . countries with successful JE control programs are Japan and South Korea  The following key control strategies and developments might explain the successful decline of JE in these countries:  1) large-scale immunization programs for humans. So they are in the risk zone. enhanced mechanization and decrease of irrigated land)  4) improved living standards (e. Laos.

 The incidence of JE in India is still increasing as there is no vaccination program  High coverage of vaccination among children increases the average age of infection of JE in Taiwan  Climate change has been implicated in the increase of transmission of several vector-borne diseases  Flooding will have serious effect on JE as that will change the pattern in agricultural practices  Climate change will also have effect on bird migration pattern which will in turn inflict changes in JE invasion  Virus spills over from reservoir to human during a dramatic buildup of Culex spp. with effective surveillance systems and vaccines playing key roles . That is due to extreme weather conditions.  JE can be controlled.

 Humans are accidentally infected and are a dead end host because of low level and transient viremia. 3 epidemiological regions have been identified . 40 of which are mosquito borne. a term that describes their requirement for a blood sucking arthropod to complete their life cycle.  Japanese encephalitis was recognized in horses and humans as early as 1871  In 1924 a severe epidemic was reported from Japan  Mosquito transmission of JEV was suspected in the early 1930s and JEV was isolated from culex Tritaeniorrhynchus by Mitamura and his colleagues  The Japanese encephalitis serological group of flaviviruses includes 8 virus species and 2 subtype viruses with a geographical range encompassing all continents except Antarctica  The most members of flaviviridae genus are arthropod borne or ARBO viruses.China.  The flaviviridae genus comprises more than 70 viruses. 16 tick borne and 18 have no known vector  Spread of the disease: 1924.India  Although JE is primarily concentrated in Southeast Asia. 1954.Japan.Overview: Japanese encephalitis  Japanese encephalitis is prevalent throughout Eastern and Southern Asia and the Pacific Rim. 1990.

India . togoi. Bird migration  3. Pipiens.  Vertical transmission of JEV has been reported in 3 strains of C tritaeniorrhynchus. annulus. quinquefasciatus and Armigeres subalbatus mosquitoes  The domestic animals can get infected but show no evidence of viremia  Amphibians.  Endemic Region  Intermediary Subtropical Region  Temperate epidemic Region Three possible mechanisms for transmission of JE has been suggested:  1.  JEV is transmitted through a zoonotic cycle between mosquitoes. C. Movement and transportation of infected host. Humans do not participate in spread of JE of low level and short lived viremia. long enough to transmit to mosquitos  Bird mosquito cycle is very important in maintaining and transmitting infection  Rainy season is the high time as the mosquito density is high  Two epidemics. pigs and water birds. Wind-blown mosquitoes  2. reptiles and bats can become infected  Pigs are most important reservoir because if gets infected easily and stay infected for 2-4 days. have been reported from Karnataka. during April to July (severe) and during September to December (milder). A. Aedes Albopictus. C. C.

 The migrating birds in southern areas may reintroduce JE in temperate zones during summer  The role of snakes and frogs in overwintering of JEV has been suggested from Korea  JE is a disease of children (3 to 6 years) in the endemic areas. host factors and endemicity  About 10% of the susceptible population is affected each year  The incubation period of JEV is 5–15 days  A percent of patients has seizures. mostly children  Acute flaccid weakness in JE has been reported in 5–20% patients  Movement disorders are common in JE and have been reported in up to 60% of patients  After the bite of an infected mosquito. the virus amplifies peripherally producing transient viremia before entering into the central nervous system. However. JE virus can overwinter with hibernating mosquitoes both in adult and larvae phase. it affects both adults and children in newly affected areas  The estimated ratio of symptomatic to asymptomatic infection varies from 1 in 25 to 1 in 1000  This variation depends on many factors such as viral factors. The mechanism of entry of JEV across the blood brain barrier is not known . The age specific infection reduced after 14. The sites of peripheral amplification are dermal tissue and then lymph nodes.

 Using real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) studies in rat. brainstem and cerebral cortex by day 6 and were undetectable by day 20 . JE virus RNA copies were found to localize in thalamus. striatum.

3% to 60%  Major environmental drivers capable of amplifying JEV transmission are temperature and precipitation  The transmission season in Nepal starts from June to October with a peak in August  Vaccination and surveillance are used for reducing epidemics JEV. .The Spatial Heterogeneity between Japanese Encephalitis Incidence Distribution and Environmental Variables in Nepal  Infection results in case fatalities of 0.

 Authors demonstrated that GIII and the recently emerged GI-b are temperate genotypes likely maintained yearround in northern latitudes. . while GI-a and GII are tropical genotypes likely maintained primarily through mosquitoavian and mosquito-swine transmission cycles. They are typed basically depending on the locations they are found. GI has displaced GIII as the dominant JEV genotype and GV has re-emerged after almost 60 years of undetected virus circulation. In recent years.  Phylogenetic studies have divided JEV into five genotypes.Phylogeography of Japanese Encephalitis Virus: Genotype Is Associated with Climate  The circulation of vector-borne zoonotic viruses is largely determined by the overlap in the geographical distributions of virus-competent vectors and reservoir hosts.

transmit the virus to other susceptible pigs. Tritaeniorhynchus eats readily on pigs even though they are mostly attracted to cattle  Humans account for only a small proportion (less than 5%) of blood meals for most Culex vectors of JEV in 14-day extrinsic incubation period (EIP). or a combination of these strategies. with the initial cycle infecting approximately 20% of pigs. changes in animal husbandry. after a 7.  Cx. This second phase of viral amplification results in up to 100% porcine seroconversion.  Mosquitoes become infected by feeding on viremic pigs and. there are two suspected 4-day amplification cycles in pigs. . mosquito control. such as southern Thailand and epidemic activity in temperate and subtropical regions  The only geographic area where all genotypes are found is the Indonesia-Malaysia region  The EIP was temperature dependent and ranged from 6 days post infection at 28◦C to 20 days at 20◦C (126). which usually develop antibodies by day 10 post infection.  No human cases were detected in areas where porcine asynchronous seroconversion occurred  two epidemiological patterns of JEV have been recognized: endemic activity in tropical regions.  Typically.Ecology and Geographical Expansion of Japanese Encephalitis Virus  Control of JEV is achieved through human and/or swine vaccination.

Annulirostris may have different vector competence to the different genotypes of JEV  (c) an inclination for Cx. Possible reasons for this include  (a) the presence of related flaviviruses that may provide cross-protection against JEV infection in susceptible hosts  (b) Cx. Annulirostris to feed on marsupials and not pigs or wading birds There is the potential for JEV to spread to the Americas. Europe. but the long distance from endemic areas makes this difficult. . but not able to start an epidemic. and modern pig husbandry may impede virus amplification.    Reintroduction:  Overwintering  Introduction by Migrating Birds. Bats. or Mosquitoes Prevention and Control:  Vaccination  Control Measures Targeting Vertebrate  Mosquito Control JEV has reached Australia. or Africa.

 Vaccines are only derived from genotype III strains  Over 30 mosquito species (family Culicidae) belonging to the Aedes. Anopheles. size. Armigeres. but still there are cases of JEV and now almost three billions of people live under the JE-endemic countries  Five JEV genotypes have been distinguished by nucleotide sequencing of capsid. and lead to permanent sequelae in about 50% of cases. spatial arrangement of landscape either facilitate or impede or impede the movement of vectors  JE infections are lethal in about 25–30% of cases.Review of Climate. neither clear-cut genotype-phenotype relationship nor clear variations in genotype fitness to hosts or vectors have been identified. Culex. while the fourth is in Eastern Indonesia. precursor membrane. and Mansonia genera are recognized to potentially carry JEV . Landscape. and envelope genes  Among them five the first three are restricted to Asia.  An effective vaccine developed in 1941. mostly in infants. The fifth is largely abundant in Malaysia  The genotypes can transfer from one to another in depending on the spatial location.  Density. and Viral Genetics as Drivers of the Japanese Encephalitis Virus Ecology  Although five JEV genotypes circulate.

They are:  Bird-Associated Wild Cycle  Pig-Associated Rural Domestic Cycle: The intensity of circulation in farms depends on the amount of pigs reared by farm. and the vaccination effort  Cx. Not all the mosquito species are equally susceptible to infection. yet it has no effect on the JEV transmission cycle  pigs represent a relevant sentinel model. quinquefasciatus is another potential vector of the JEV domestic cycle for it’s domestic water collection and use of wastewater from pig farms for breeding  The introduction and reintroduction of vector-borne and zoonotic diseases as well as variations in disease risk and incidence are strongly driven by environmental factors  The most important factors are climate. the surveillance of which could predict a potential JE outbreak in a human population nearby . land cover and land use  Rainfall and temperature are the most important climactic factors as they directly control vector density  Vaccination is the most effective way to reduce the incidence of JE in humans. Variations of competence may be due to differences in the susceptibility to infection of mosquito midgut and salivary gland  There is two cycle of infection. their reproduction rate. their age at slaughter.