SUMMARIZING &

OUTLINING

conclusions. .SUMMARY •Restates major findings. before the body. •Appear at the beginning of the report. and support data found in a document.

•Types of abstracts: Informational Abstract and Descriptive Abstract. .ABSTRACT •A short version of a report or journal article. •Appear with the report/article in the periodical or as an independent unit.

conclusions and recommendations of original document. Length: One to three paragraphs. Example: “The article notes that functional resumes should include a career objective. Purpose: Give readers enough information to grasp the main findings. academic experience and a list of the applicant’s skills. .INFORMATIONAL ABSTRACT Format: Includes the major points from original doc.

Purpose: Help readers to decide whether they want to read the original document.DESCRIPTIVE ABSTRACT Format: Gives only the main topics of the document. Length: One paragraph only.” . Example: “The article lists the main parts of the functional resume.

Read to find the main terms and concepts.What are the key statements? •.Which sentence expresses the overall purpose of the document? .Use Basic Summarizing Strategies 1.What are the main divisions of document? •. •.

What are the key terms? Which words are repeated or emphasized? .What details support the main ideas? •.Read to find the main terms and concepts (cont.1.Which sentences tell the main ideas of each paragraph? •.) •.

Description of contents – name only main sections. •.Decide how much detail to include.Use Basic Summarizing Strategies 2.Consider audience’s needs •. . •.Understand the underlying ideas – provide details.

• Main point followed by support – writer should write a clear topic sentence that repeats the central thesis of the document. .CHOOSE AN ORGANIZATION • Proportional reduction – refers to the idea that each part in the summary should be proportionally equal to the corresponding part in the original.

or symbols unfamiliar to the reader • Report the contents of document without bias • Main points first . abbreviations.Use the Usual Form • Length of 250 words to 1 page • Verbs in the active voice and present tense • A clear reference to the document • No terms.

Purpose: • Reading Aid • Prewriting Device .OUTLINING Definition: a map of document’s main and supporting points.

Each phrase is on a line of its own. .Numbers and letters show the sequence of ideas.Types of Outlines 1. •.Traditional Outline •.Indentations show which ideas are equal and which are subordinate to others. •.

No automated production is available . Domestic Difficulties 1. Only Europeans receive licenses a. Americans rent from the French B. Only railroads issue licenses 2.EXAMPLE I. Problems with Europallets A. French company agrees to import pallets b. Regulatory Difficulties 1. No used pallets are available 2.

• Like mind-mapping • Can be used to group related thoughts. Nucleus Outline • Uses clusters to group similar ideas. .2.

THE END .