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ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE

[AD]

It is an incurable . It is characterized by impairment of memory and eventually disturbances in reasoning . planning . degenerative and terminal disease which was first described by German Psychiatrist Alois Alzheimer in 1906 and was named after him. A neurological brain disorder. language and perception. .What is Alzheimer’s Alzheimer’s is the most common form of dementia.

. Long standing high blood pressure. Female gender. History of head trauma. Family history.Causes of AD Age factor. Neurological factors.

Types of AD Early onset. Late onset. .

Presently accounts for 5% of total AD patients worldwide. . It tends to progress rapidly and usually run in families.EARLY ONSET AD Symptoms first appear before age 60. Cases of early onset AD are rarely encountered.

LATE ONSET AD It is the most commonly encountered form of AD. Symptoms appears after the age of 60 years. . It may run in families but the role of genes is still unclear.

Personality changes and loss of social skill. Misplacing items. . Change in sleep pattern. Getting lost on familiar routes. Difficulty in performing task that takes some thought.SYMPTOMS OF AD Language problem. Forgetting details.

Difficulty in doing basic task. Withdrawing from social contacts. Poor judgment and loss of ability to recognize danger. . Intricacies in communicating with other people. Having hallucination and violent behavior.Difficulty in reading or writing.

3 STAGES OF AD Mid/Early. Moderate/Middle. . Severe/Late.

 Mild coordination problems.  Mood swings.MID/EARLY Duration-2 years  Characteristics Frequent recent memory loss. particularly of recent events and conversation.  Repeated question. .

MODERATE/MIDDLE Duration-2 to 10 years. Characteristics Pervasive and persistent memory loss.  Sleep disturbances.  Mobility and coordination is affected. .

 Round the clock intensive support and care. Characteristics Unable to care for self.   Problems with swallowing. incontinence. and illness.  Extreme problem with moods and behaviour.SEVERE/LATE Duration-1 to 3+ years. .  Immobility.

DIAGNOSIS OF AD Neuropsychological testing. Medical history Physical Examination Brain-imaging scan .

 Manage behavioral problem. Drug treatment. The goals of treating AD are –  Slowing the progression of disease. Supplements. sleep problems and agitation.  Support family members and other caregivers. .TREATMENT OF AD There is no definite cure for AD. confusion.

. Although a patient might live anywhere between 3-20 years after diagnosis. Death usually occurs from an infection or a failure of other body systems.PROGNOSIS How quickly AD gets worse for each person? Patient with AD dies earlier than normal.se The final phase of Ad may last from a few month to several years.

COMPLICATIONS Loss of ability to function or care for self. . Malnutrition or dehydration. Violent behavior towards self or others. Abuse by over-stressed caregiver. Failure of body system. Loss of ability to interact.

.  Maintain a normal blood pressure.  Stay mentally and socially active.  Increase antioxidants like vitamin E and vitamin C by eating a plenty of darkly coloured fruits and vegetables.PREVENTION Well there is no proven way to prevent AD but if u have a family history of dementia there are some practices worth incorporating in your daily routine Consume a low fat diet.

Nanabhoy Palkhivala .NOTABLE CASES Ronald Reagan. Iris Murdoch. George Fernandes. Charles Kao.