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4G Technology

By Nithin Raj

4G Definition

4G is not one defined technology or
standard, but rather a collection of
technologies at creating fully packetswitched networks optimized for data.

4G Networks are projected to provide
speed of 100Mbps while moving and
1Gbps while stationary.

Improved Mobile Telephone Service (IMTS). The very first analog systems were based upon IMTS and were created in the late 60s and early 70s.  In the 1960’s. brought quite a few improvements such as direct dialing and more bandwidth. . the first radio telephone service was introduced.0G (Zero Generation Mobile System)  At the end of the 1940’s. a system launched by Bell Systems. called. and was designed to users in cars to the public land-line based telephone network.

Analog signal .1G Technology  1G refers to the first-generation of wireless telephone technology was developed in 1970’s.  1G had two major improvements:    the invention of the microprocessor the digital transform of the control link between the phone and the cell site.

2G Technology  Around 1980’s  Better quality & capacity .More people could use there phones at the same time  Digital Signals – consist of 0’s & 1’s .

High level. 3.Falling edge  . 2.Previous Technology .Rising edge and 4.2G   Digital – consist of 0’s and 1’s Digital signal: 1.Low level.

Previous Technology .6 Kbit/sec. (I.E) approximately 6 times slower than an ISDN .2G    Digital data can be compressed and multiplexed much more effectively than analog voice encodings Multiplexing -multiple analog message signals or digital data streams are combined into one signal For 1 and 2G standards. bandwidth maximum is 9.

Previous Technology .2G  Allows for lower powered radio signals that require less battery  Power–CODEC introduction -program that encodes and decodes digital data stream or signal  Translates data from digital to analog and vice versa .

Previous Technology .2G .

2G  The digital voice encoding allows digital error checking    increase sound quality lowers the noise level Going all-digital allowed for the introduction of digital data transfer   SMS –“short message service” E-mail .Advantages in Previous Technology .

2G  Cell towers had a limited coverage area  Jagged Decay curve    Abrupt dropped calls Analog –gradual sound reduction “Spotty” coverage .Disadvantages in Previous Technology .

3G Technology  Large capacity and broadband capabilities  Allows the transmission of 384kbps for mobile systems and up to 2Mbps  Increased spectrum efficiency –5Mhz   A greater number of users that can be simultaneously supported by a radio frequency bandwidth High data rates at lower incremental cost than 2G–Global roaming .

Previous Technology .3G  CDMA –Code Division Multiple Access  Form of multiplexing  Does not divide up the channel by time or frequency  Encodes data with a special code associated with each channel .

Code Division Multiple Access .

Types of Multiplexing  FDMA – Frequency Division Multiple Access  Each phone call is allocated one frequency for the entire duration of the call .

Time Division Multiple Access  Each phone call is allocated a spot in the frequency for a small amount of time. and "takes turns" being transmitted .Types of Multiplexing  TDMA .

Types of Multiplexing  CDMA . in a manner known as spread spectrum transmission .Code Division Multiple Access  Each phone call is uniquely encoded and transmitted across the entire spectrum.

there are some issues that are debated by 3G providers and users.Reasons for New Research  Even though 3G has successfully been introduced to mobile users.  High input fees for the 3G service licenses  Great differences in the licensing terms  3G phones are expensive .

Fourth Generation .

What is 4G?  Fourth Generation Technology           Faster and more reliable 100 Mb/s Lower cost than previous generations Multi-standard wireless system Bluetooth.11n Most information is proprietary . Wired. Wireless Ad Hoc Networking IPv6 Core OFDM used instead of CDMA Potentially IEEE standard 802.

microwave. (i. or satellite (ISP) Ad-hoc/hot-spot layer:  wireless LANs (i.) cell tower connected by fiber.Communications Architecture   Broadcast layer:  fix access points. internet at Starbuck’s) .e.e.

fax. MP3 players.Communications Architecture  Personal Layer Gateway:   Info-Sensor layer:   devices that connect to upper layers. PDAs environmental sensors Fiber-optic wire layer:  high speed subterranean labyrinth of fiber optic cables and repeaters . voice. cell phone. data modem.

Ad Hoc Networks  Spontaneous self organization of networks of devices  Not necessarily connected to internet  4G will create hybrid wireless networks using Ad Hoc networks  Form of mesh networking–Very reliable .

Enhance Mobile Gaming  Experience enhance wireless capabilities that deliver mobile gaming interaction with less than five seconds  Play online multi player games while traveling at high speeds or sitting outside .

Broadband access in Remote location  4G will provide a wireless alternative for broadband access  I will provide first opportunity for broadband access in remote locations without an infrastructure to support cable or DSL access. .

Thanking You .