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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCING SCIENCE
(PENGENALAN SAINS)

Science is a field of knowledge that relates to the world around us
Sains ialah satu bidang pengetahuan yang ada kaitan dengan dunia sekeliling kita.

SCIENCE
Explain all phenomena or all things about
(menerangkan semua kejadian tentang)

Plants and
animals

Flower
blossoming

The earth(bumi) Weather (cuaca)
and sky (langit) and wind (angin)

Lightning
strikes

raining

Motion of things
(pergerakan
bahan)
Ball falling to
the ground

How things
Operate
(Bgmn benda
beroperasi)

Machine
operate

1. Science is a field of knowledge that
relates to the world around us.
2. Technology is the application
(penggunaan) of scientific knowledge for
human needs.

• Technology is the application of scientific
knowledge for human needs.
• Science is a fields of knowledge that
relates to the world around us.

Curve line 10. Electric current 5. Compression balance 7. Spring balance 6. Gravitational pull 8. Length 3.1. Mass 4. Weight 9. TEMPERATURE 2. Straight line .

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(membantu kita memahami alam sekeliling dan diri kita) IMPORTANT OF SCIENCE (kepentingan sains) Can bring answers to the problems we face. (membolehkan kita memperkembangankan teknologi baru) . (memberi jawapan kepada masalah yang kita hadapi) Enables us to develop new technologies.We get to know and understand the environment and ourselves.

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Transport (pengangkutan) Health (kesihatan) Comforts of life (untuk kesenangan hidup) Communication (komunikasi) Important Important Contributions(sumbangansains) sains)of ofscience science Contributions(sumbangan and and technologyto tothe thelives livesof ofhuman humanbeing being technology Entertainment (hiburan) Space pioneering Agriculture (pertanian) .

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SCIENCE teacher ENGINEER dentists CAREERSIN INTHE THEFIELD FIELD CAREERS OFSCIENCE SCIENCE OF DOCTOR astronomers pharmacists .

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Wash all apparatus after use. Keep the laboratory clean and tidy. (jangan merasa sebarang bahan kimia) . Do not play or run in the laboratory(jangan bermain/berlari dlm makmal) 3.Laboratory safety rule ( do) Don’t do 1. (cuci peralatan yang telah digunakan) 2. (laporkan sebarang kecederaan /kerosakan kepada guru) 3. Do not eat or drink in the laboratory (jangan makan/minum dalam makmal) Do not enter the laboratory without your teacher’s permission. (jangan masuk dalam makamal tanpa kebenaran guru) 4.(pastikan makmal bersih dan kemas) 1. Report any injury or breakage to your teacher immediately. 2. Do not taste any chemical.

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Planning the experiment (merancang eksperimen) 4. Collecting data (mengutip data) 6. When carrying out an investigation. Controlling variables (mengawal pemboleh ubah) . the following steps are necessary: 5. Analyzing and interpreting data (analisis dan mentafsir data) 7.carrying out an investigation (menjalankan eksperimen) • An investigation is carried out as planned to test a hypothesis. Forming a hypothesis (membina hipotesis) 3. Reporting (menulis laporan) . Identifying a problem (kenal pasti masalah) 2. Making conclusion (membuat kesimpulan) 8.Step in a scientific investigation (langkah-langkah dalam penyiasatan saintifik) 1.

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Fix Number of oscillation .

then it is released 3. A simple pendulum with 10 cm long thread is prepared 2.1. The time taken for 10 complete oscillations is recorded in a table 4. The pendulum is pulled to one side. 5. The experiment is repeated using a simple pendulum of different lengths as shown in the table. A graph showing the length of pendulum versus the time taken for 10 complete oscillations is drawn. .

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c.(kuantiti yang boleh diukur) Example of physical quantities are: Length(panjang) Mass (jisim) Physical quantities Time (masa) (kuantiti fizikal) Temperature (suhu) Electric current (arus elektrik) . d. a. 2. Measure is important and is often used in science. e. 2. b. (Pengukuran adalah sangat penting dan selalunya digunakan dalam sains) Physical quantities are quantities that can be measured.PHYSICAL QUANTITIES AND THEIR UNITS 1.

I unit (unit SI-antarabangsa) Symbol of unit Length (panjang) Metre(m)-meter m Mass (jisim) Kilogram (kg)-kilogram kg Time (MASA) Second (s)-saat s Temperature (suhu) Degree Celsius (ºC) or K Kelvin (ºK)-darjah celsius atau Kelvin Electric current (arus elektrik) A Ampere-(Ampere) .Physical quantities and the S.I unit for each measurement (kuantiti fizikal dan unit SI antarabangsa untuk setiap pengukuran ialah) Physical quantity (kuantiti fizikal) S.

Physical quantity (kuantiti fizikal) Length (panjang) Mass (jisim) Time (MASA) Temperature (suhu) Electric current (arus elektrik) S.I unit (unit SI-antarabangsa) Symbol of unit .

Example: Mass (jisim) = 2 kg Physical quantity (kuantiti fizikal) Value (nilai) Unit (unit) .Early method of measuring length (jengkal) (hasta) 1. (depa) The physical quantities that are used in specificatins and labels of goods have certain values and units.

The use of prefixes makes it easier for us to write these measurement.prefix 1. Prefixes use when the quantities we measure have very big values or very small values. Prefix Symbol Value of prefix Kilo- k 1000 2. Centi- c 1/100 Mili- m 1/1000 .

1 cm = 10 mm 1mm = 1/10 cm (0.001) ………………………………………………..1) ………………………………………………… 1m = 100 cm 1 cm = 1/100m (0. 1 km = 1000 m 1 m = 1/ 1000 km .01) ………………………………………………… 1m = 1000 mm 1 mm = 1/1000 m (0.

1 cm = 10 mm (besar kepada kecil) b.x10 exercise a. mm 120 cm = ………mm ……………………mm . mm 50 cm = ………mm ……………………. 1 mm = 1/10 cm (kecil kepada besar) ÷ ÷ 10 Question method 1 cm= ………mm 1 cm X 10 = 10 mm 8 cm= ………mm 8 cm X 10 = 80 mm 10 cm = ………mm …………………….

cm 50 mm = …...cm …………………….cm 1 mm X 1/10 = 0.1 cm 9 mm = ….cm ……………………cm . 1 cm = 10 mm (besar kepada kecil) 1 mm = 1/10 cm (kecil kepada besar) question method 1 mm = ….cm ……………………....cm 89 mm = ….a.cm 27 mm = ….cm …………………….

. 66 cm = ………….. 210 mm = …………cm X10 1 cm = 10 mm 1mm = 0. 60 mm = ………….cm 7. 14 cm = …………. 46 cm = ………….1. 5 mm = ………….mm 3. 80 mm = ………….1 cm ÷10 ..cm 8..mm 5.mm 2.cm 9.mm 6. 4 cm = …………….mm 4. 190 mm = …………cm 10. 7 cm = …………….

21m = ….. 48 m = …. 3 m = …..cm 5. 7 m = ….. 1m = ….cm 6.1 m = 100 cm 1 cm = 0.cm 2. 297m= ……cm .cm 4.cm 3.01 m 1.cm 7.. 99 m = …..cm 8. 107m = ….

95 cm = ……m 6. 0.. 330 cm = …..17 cm= ….m 10. 0. 72 cm = ……m 5.01 m 1.m 7..m 3. 11cm = ……. 111 cm = ….1 m = 100 cm 1 cm = 0..m 9.m .2 cm = …...m 8. 1 cm = …….m 4. 218 cm = ….. 8 cm = …….m 2.

4.m 10.m ... 2.7 cm = ….. 3..cm 9 m = ….cm 22m = …..5 cm = …. 4m = …. 0.cm 6.m 9.exercise 1...15 cm= ….m 7.m 8. 5. 88 cm = …. 0.cm 12 m = …. 68 cm = …. 0..cm 57 m = ….

. 50 mm = ….001) 1. 1m= …….m . 79 m = ….mm 3. 7 m = ….1m = 1000 mm 1 mm = 1/1000 m (0.mm 4. 1 mm = ……. 89 mm = ……m 10. 100 mm ….. 2 mm = ……m 8.mm 6.m 7.... 40 m = ….mm 5.mm 2.m 9.. 2 m = ….

.1 km = 1000 m 1 m = 1/ 1000 km =0. 8900 m = ……km 5. 2000 m = ……km 3. 1 km= …….km 2.m 7.m 6..km 4.km .. 40 km = …. 7000 m …. 79 km = ….m 9.m 8... 7 km = …. 2 km = …. 5000 m = ….001km 1. 1000 m = ……..m 10.

1 1/10 Centi c 0.000 001 1 X 10-6 nano n 0.Symbols and value ofsymbols for prefixes Prefix Symbol True value of the symbol Value of the symbol in standard form Mega M 1000 000 1 X 106 Kilo k 1000 1 X 103 Desi d o.01 1/100 Milli m 0.000 000 001 1 X 10-9 .001 1/1000 Micro μ 0.

Prefix Giga Tera Exa Zetta Pico Fento anto Symbol G T E Z P F A Value of the symbol in standard form 1 X 109 1 X 1012 1 X 1018 1 X 1021 1 X 10-12 1 X 10-15 1 X 10-18 .

c. d. and to prefix form.5 mm to m 8. 3000 g to kg 0.exercies 1. b.0075 m to mm 5.3 mm to km . Change the value of physical quantities below to the standard form. a.

(Ia bergantung kepada daya tarikan graviti yang bertindak ke atas sesuatu objek.I antarabangsa bagi berat ialah Newton) 5. 3.CONCEPT OF weight (konsep berat) 1. The weight of an object is the force of the gravitational pull that acts on the object.(unit S.I unit for weight is Newton (N). Berat adalah berbeza dari satu tempat ke satu tempat) 4. The S.(berat sesuatu objek diukur dengan menggunakan neraca spring dan neraca mampatan). The weight of an object is measured by using a spring balance or a compression balance. The weight of an object can change(berat sesuatu objek boleh berubah kerana ia bergantung kepada tarikan graviti). Because of this. It depends on the gravitational force that acts on the object at a given place. . (Berat suatu objek ialah daya tarikan graviti yang bertindak ke atas objek tersebut). the weight of an object differs from place to place. 2.

(Berat suatu objek ialah daya tarikan graviti yang bertindak ke atas objek tersebut). .weight 1. The weight is gravitational pull that acts on the object.

Balance to measure weight (Neraca mampatan) (neraca spring) .

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Laboratory Activity Salin buku teks m/s……. .

(Jisim suatu objek adalah kuantiti jirim yang terkandung di dalam objek tersebut. . 5.I unit for mass is kilogram (kg). The S. 2. the triple beam balance. 4. The mass of an object is the quantity of matter that is present in the object. Other units for mass is gram (g) and miligram (mg).Unit S.CONCEPT OF MASS(konsep jisim) 1.I bagi jisim ialah Kilogram. Mass is different from weight. the double beam balance. the chemical balance and the electronic balance. The mass of an object is not influenced by the force of gravitational pull (jisim tidak dipengaruhi oleh daya tarikan graviti). The mass of an object is fixed although it may be moved to different places (jisim adalah tetap walaupun di tempat yang berlainan). The instruments for measuring mass are the lever balance. 3.

Types of balance to measure mass (alat untuk sukat
jisim)

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MASS AND WEIGHT
(Perbezaan antara jisim dan berat)

DIFFERENCES

Mass(jisim)

Weight (berat)

Influence of
gravitational force
(pengaruh tarikan
graviti)

Quantity of matter present
in an object
Not influenced by gravity
Tidak dipengaruhi oleh
tarikan graviti)

Weight is gravitational pull
that acts on an object
Yes, Influenced by gravity
(dipengaruhi oleh tarikan
graviti)

Value
(nilai)

Fixed and does not
depend on where it is
measured (tetap dan
tidak kira tempat)

Changes depending on
where it is measured
(berubah mengikut tempat)

Unit of
measurement
(unit)

Kilogram (kg), gram (g),
and miligram (mg)

Newton (N)

Measuring
instruments in the
laboratory
(alat)

Lever balance, chemical
balance, beam balance

Spring balance or
compression balance

DIFFERENCES
Influence of
gravitational
force
(pengaruh
tarikan graviti)
Value
(nilai)
Unit of
measurement
(unit)
Measuring
instruments in
the laboratory
(alat)

Mass(jisim)

Weight (berat)

USE OF MEASURING
TOOLS
MEASUREMENT
OF
LENGTH (PANJANG)

I unit = metre (m). Long distances (JARAK PANJANG)= kilometeres (km). 5. 1 cm = 10 mm 1 m = 100cm 1 km = 1000m . 2. Jarak panjang disukat dalam unit kilometer. Short lengths=JARAK PENDEK centimetres (cm) or millimetres (mm). 3. A.unit SI untuk panjang ialah meter (m). B. The S.MEASURE OF LENGTH 1. Length is the distance between two points (panjang ialah jarak antara 2 titik). 4. Jarak pendek boleh disukat dalam unit sentimeter(cm) atau milimeter (mm).

The Correct eye position to read the scale B .TOOL FOR MEASURING LENGTH 1. 2. How to measure straight line (garis lurus)? use metre ruler.

How to measure long straight line? using measuring tape .Tools for measure the length of long straight lines 3.

Opisometer (map) c. soft measuring tape . using thread (benang) and ruler.4. How to MEASURE CURVED LINE (garisan bengkok) ? a. b.

Opisometer (sukat jarak yang bengkang-bengkok .

Why should the average value (nilai purata) of a few readings be required? To get a result that is more precise 3. By using opisometer and thread + ruler . State why the meter ruler is not suitable to measure: The length of a classroom because the length of a classroom is too long/big 5. Suggest how you would measure the length of a river on a map. because the thickness of a strand of hair is too small/too thin 6. 2. State two advantages of using a measuring tape can be used to measure a long straight line Can measure length of ………………………………….Exercise 1. The thickness of a strand of hair. What is length? length is the distance between two point. 4. a. a. b.

7. 8. The length of an object can be measure by using a ruler or measuring tape. The length of a curve line can be measured with the use of thread and ruler/ opisometer .

5 cm2 .area Breath=3 cm Area = length X breath =5cm X 3 cm = 15 cm 2 Length=5 cm 3 cm (height) 7 cm (base) Area = ½ (base X height) = ½ (7 cm X 3 cm) = ½ (21 cm2) = 10.

The total surface covered by an object Square centimetre / cm2 .

MEASUREMENT OF THE DIAMETER OF AN OBJECT(mengukur diameter sesuatu objek) A. Internal diameter measure using internal calipers and ruler .

B: External diameter----measure using external calipers and ruler .

C: Diameter of a spherical object(diameter objek berbentuk sfera boleh disukat dengan mengunakan): (i) Two wooden blocks and a ruler(dua blok kayu) (i) Two set squares and a ruler ( .

• THE TICKNESS OF THE BEAKER IS Not uniform (tidak seragam) • Thickness of beaker= • Test tube/measuring cylinder/burette • Measure the tickness of a hundred sheets of paper with external calipers and divide the value you obtained by 100. Conclusion: The external diameter and internal diameter of a beaker can be measured by using External calipers +ruler and internal calipers + ruler .

. 4. a measring cylinder. The external jaws are used to measure the external diameter of a container.01cm. The vernier calipers has two scales.Vernier caliper 1. The vernier scales. The main scale is graduated in centimetre units. 5. Vernier caliper can be used to measure small distances accurately. a scale of 9 mm. 2. Vernier calipers are used for measuring short objects with accuracy such as thickness of an eraser or used to measure the internal and external diameters of objects such as a boiling tube.9 mm. a test tube and the mouth of a conecal flask. One division is 0. 3. has 10 divisions. This instrument gives readings with an accuracy of up to 0. The internal jaws are used to measure the internal diameter of a container.

Vernier calipers Sukat diameter dalam bikar Sukat diameter Luar bikar .

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Micrometer screw gauge digunakan untuk menyukat jarak yang kecil seperti Ketebalan kertas. . diameter dawai atau diameter rambut.

Area is the total surface occupied by an object. Area is measure in square metres (m2). square centimetres (cm2) and square millimetres (mm2) unit. 2.(luas permukaan yang diliputi oleh sesuatu objek). .MEASUREMENT OF AREA 1.

(luas segi empat) Dikira dengan: Panjang X lebar Luas=panjang X lebar 4 cm x 3 cm = 12 cm2 Luas=1/2 tapak X tinggi =1/2 4 cm x 3 cm =1/2 x 12 cm2 = 6 cm2 .

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AREA OF IRREGULAR SHAPES .

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2 Unit ? litres (l). What is Volume? is the total space occupied by an object (isipadu adalah jumlah ruang yang ditempati oleh suatu objek). b.Measurement volume of liquids 1. cubic metres (m 3)/ meter padu. (alat)? Measuring Cylinder burette pipette . 1 ml = 1 cm3 1 L = 1 000 ml = 1 000 cm3 Tool a. millilitres (ml). c. cubic centimetres cm 3/sentimeter padu.

Cylinder pipette burette . We use a measuring cylinder.1. burette or pipette to measure the volume of a liquid.

The apparatus show above are use to measure Volume of liquid .

3. .The eye must be on the same level as the meniscus of the liquid (kedudukan mata mesti selaras dengan paras meniscus.Place the measuring cylinder on a flat surface (letakkan measuring cylinder di tempat yang rata) b.Two precautionary (langkah berjaga-jaga) a.

• Measuring cylinder • Water displacement method • Initial reading (bacaan awal) 39 ml • Final reading (bacaan akhir) 46 ml d)Calculate the volume of the lead block: • Final reading-initial reading • 46ml – 39 ml = 7 ml .

a. The lead block should be place on the flat surface. The reading has to be taken at eye level. . b.

Measurement volume (isipadu) of liquids (cecair) reading : taken below the curve (lengkuk) of the meniscus. (atas meniskus) Reading: taken above (atas) the curve of the meniscus. (atas meniskus) .

MEASUREMENT OF THE VOLUME OF SOLIDS (ISIPADU PEPEJAL and irregular objek (bentuk tidak tetap) This technique is call water Displacement Method. .

Exercise .

Volume of copper lump: 45 cm3 – 40 cm3=5 cm3 Volume of cork: 51 cm3 – 45 cm3 = 6 cm3 Sink (tenggelam) Because cork does not sink in the water. .

50cm3=5 cm3 .Volume of stone: 50cm3-0cm3=10cm3 Volume of cork: 55cm3.