10

Nutrients Involved
in Antioxidant
Function

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What Are Antioxidants?
• Compounds that protect cells from the
damage caused by oxidation
• Nutrients with antioxidant properties:



Vitamin E
Vitamin C
Vitamin A (precursor beta-carotene)
Selenium

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Exchange Reactions
• Oxidation is a chemical reaction in which
atoms lose electrons
• Reduction occurs when atoms gain a
electron

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.Free Radicals • Stable atoms have an even number of electrons (pairs) orbiting • Electron loss during oxidation leaves an odd number or unpaired electron • Unstable atoms are called free radicals • Reactive oxygen species (ROS): oxygen molecule that becomes a free radical Free Radical Formation © 2011 Pearson Education. Inc.

. Inc.What Causes Free Radicals? • Metabolic processes • Immune system fighting infections • Environmental factors • • • • • • Pollution Excess sunlight Toxic substances Radiation Tobacco smoke Asbestos © 2011 Pearson Education.

Cell Damage • Free radicals form within the phospholipid bilayers of cell membranes and steal electrons • Damaged lipid molecules cause cell membrane to lose its integrity © 2011 Pearson Education. . Inc.

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.Diseases Linked with Free Radicals • Free radicals damage low-density lipoproteins (LDLs). and DNA • Increase risk for chronic diseases • • • • • • Heart disease Various cancers Diabetes Cataracts Alzheimer’s disease Parkinson’s disease © 2011 Pearson Education. Inc. cell proteins.

How Do Antioxidants Work? • Stabilize free radicals or oppose oxidation • Antioxidant vitamins donate their electrons or hydrogen molecules to free radicals to stabilize them and reduce oxidation damage • Antioxidant minerals act as cofactors within enzyme systems that convert free radicals to less damaging substances that can be excreted © 2011 Pearson Education. Inc. .

.Antioxidant Enzymes • Antioxidant enzyme systems • Break down oxidized fatty acids • Make more vitamin antioxidants available to fight other free radicals © 2011 Pearson Education. Inc.

Antioxidant Enzymes • Antioxidant enzymes: • Superoxide dismutase converts free radicals to less damaging substances. . such as hydrogen peroxide • Catalase removes hydrogen peroxide from the body • Glutathione peroxidase removes hydrogen peroxide © 2011 Pearson Education. Inc.

Antioxidants • Other compounds stabilize free radicals and prevent damage to cells and tissues • Nutrients with antioxidant properties: • • • • • Vitamin E Vitamin C Vitamin A Beta-carotene (precursor to vitamin A) Selenium © 2011 Pearson Education. Inc. .

Vitamin E • Fat soluble. Inc. . cell membranes © 2011 Pearson Education. absorbed with dietary fats • Incorporated into the chylomicron to be transported to the liver • Incorporated into very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDLs) • Stored in adipose tissue.

Inc. .Forms of Vitamin E • Tocopherol compounds are the biologically active forms • Alpha-tocopherol is most active (potent). found in food and supplements • RDA: expressed as alpha-tocopherol (mg/day) • Food labels and supplements: expressed as alpha-tocopherol equivalents or International Units (IU) © 2011 Pearson Education.

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Inc. fatty cell components. . if low © 2011 Pearson Education. and LDLs from oxidization (lower heart disease risk) • Added to oil-based foods and skincare products to reduce rancidity and spoilage • Normal nerve and muscle development • Enhances immune system • Promotes vitamin A absorption.Functions of Vitamin E • Protects polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs).

RDA for Vitamin E
• RDA: 15 mg alpha-tocopherol per day
• Determined to be sufficient to prevent
erythrocyte hemolysis, rupturing (lysis) of red
blood cells (erythrocytes)
• Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL): 1,000 mg
alpha-tocopherol per day

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Food Sources of Vitamin E
• Vitamin E is widespread in foods
• Vegetable oils (safflower, sunflower, canola,
soybean), mayonnaise, salad dressing
• Nuts, seeds, soybeans
• Wheat germ, fortified cereals
• Vitamin E is destroyed by exposure to oxygen,
metals, ultraviolet light, and heat
• Little vitamin E in deep-fried, processed foods

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intestinal distress. Coumadin) • Long-term use may cause hemorrhagic stroke © 2011 Pearson Education. Inc. .Vitamin E toxicity • High supplemental doses of vitamin E may be harmful for certain individuals • Side effects: nausea. and diarrhea • Interacts with anticoagulants (aspirin.

Vitamin E Deficiency • Deficiency is rare • Erythrocyte hemolysis (rupturing of red blood cells) leads to anemia • Anemia in premature infants • Symptoms: loss of muscle coordination and reflexes. Inc. . impaired vision. speech • Impaired immunity (with low selenium) • Associated with fat malabsorption © 2011 Pearson Education.

steroids) © 2011 Pearson Education. Inc. .Vitamin C and Its Functions • Water soluble • Functions—synthesis of: • • • • • • Collagen (prevents scurvy) DNA Bile Neurotransmitters (serotonin) Carnitine (transports long-chain fatty acids) Hormones (thyroxine. epinephrine.

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Inc.More Functions of Vitamin C • Antioxidant for protecting: • LDL-cholesterol from oxidation • Lungs from ozone and cigarette damage • White blood cells (enhances immune function) • Reduces nitrosamines. . cancer-causing agent found in cured and processed meats • Regenerates oxidized vitamin E • Enhances iron absorption © 2011 Pearson Education.

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. burns • Use of oral contraceptives © 2011 Pearson Education. 75 mg/day (women) UL: 2. surgery. Inc.Vitamin C Requirements • • • • RDA: 90 mg/day (men).000 mg/day for adults Smokers require additional 35 mg/day Other situations requiring more vitamin C: • Healing from traumatic injury.

Food Sources of Vitamin C • • • • Best sources: fresh fruits and vegetables Destroyed by heat and oxygen Can be leached into boiling water Minimize loss: steaming. Inc. and stir-frying © 2011 Pearson Education. . microwaving.

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000 mg/day: nausea. nosebleeds. diarrhea. and abdominal cramps • Harmful for people with hemochromatosis (excess iron accumulation in the body) © 2011 Pearson Education. . Inc.Too Much Vitamin C? • Water soluble • Extra excreted. consuming excess is not toxic • Only supplements can lead to toxic doses • Megadoses • Long-term excess of 2.

Inc. depression • Anemia can result • High risk for deficiency among people with • Low fruit and vegetable intake • Alcohol and drug abuse © 2011 Pearson Education.Not Enough Vitamin C? • Rare in developed countries • Scurvy: most common deficiency disease • Symptoms: bleeding gums. . weakness. bone pain and fractures. loose teeth. diarrhea. wounds that fail to heal.

Inc. which indicates how much active vitamin A is available to the body after conversion © 2011 Pearson Education. inactive form (precursor) of vitamin A to be converted to active retinol • Phytochemical classified as a carotenoid • Expressed in food as Retinol Activity Equivalents (RAE). .Beta-Carotene • Provitamin A.

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Functions of Beta-Carotene • • • • • Weak antioxidant Fights lipid oxidation in cell membranes Enhances immune system Protects skin from UV-ray damage Protects eyes from damage. Inc. preventing or delaying age-related vision impairment © 2011 Pearson Education. .

Inc. . yellow. and deepgreen fruits and vegetables • Heat improves digestibility and absorption © 2011 Pearson Education.Beta-Carotene Requirements • Beta-carotene is not an essential nutrient • No RDA established • Consuming 6 to 10 mg of beta-carotene per day from food sources may reduce the risks for cancer and heart disease • Food sources: red. orange.

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adequate amounts from fruits and vegetables • Not enough? • No known deficiency symptoms © 2011 Pearson Education. Inc. .Beta-Carotene Requirements • Large consumption is not toxic • Carotenosis (carotenodermia): reversible and harmless • Supplementation is not recommended.

Vitamin A • • • • Fat soluble Active forms: retinol. retinal. retinoic acid Stored mainly in the liver Expressed as Retinol Activity Equivalents (RAE) • International Units (IU) for vitamin A on food labels or dietary supplements © 2011 Pearson Education. . Inc.

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process by which stem cells mature into specialized cells • Sperm production and fertilization • Bone growth Vitamin A and Epithelial Tissue © 2011 Pearson Education. Inc.Functions of Vitamin A • Antioxidant. . scavenges free radicals and protects LDL from oxidation • Essential for healthy vision • Cell differentiation.

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Inc.Vitamin A Requirements • RDA is 900 micrograms/day for men. dairy. . 700 micrograms/day for women • UL: 3. fortified foods) • Plants (dark-green. and deep-yellow fruits and vegetables that are high in beta-carotene can be converted to vitamin A) © 2011 Pearson Education. eggs.000 micrograms/day preformed vitamin A • Food sources • Animal (liver. orange.

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spontaneous abortion • Symptoms: fatigue. . skin disorders. abdominal pain. and damage to the liver and nervous system © 2011 Pearson Education.Vitamin A Requirements • Highly toxic. diarrhea. mainly from supplements • Birth defects. blurred vision. loss of appetite. hair loss. bone and joint pain. Inc. nausea.

Inc.Vitamin A Requirements • Deficiency • • • • Night blindness Xerophthalmia Hyperkeratosis Impaired immunity. . failure of normal growth Vitamin A and the Visual Cycle © 2011 Pearson Education.

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.Selenium • Trace mineral needed in small amounts • Antioxidant (part of glutathione peroxidase enzyme system): spares vitamin E • Thyroxine (thyroid hormone) production: basal metabolism. UL: 400 µg/day • Sources: organ meats. seafood © 2011 Pearson Education. body temperature • RDA: 55 µg/day. pork. Inc.

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skin rashes. vomiting. a heart disease • Kashin-Beck disease. . cirrhosis of the liver • Deficiency associated with • Keshan disease. deforming arthritis • Impaired immunity © 2011 Pearson Education. Inc.Selenium • Toxicity can occur from supplements • Brittle hair and nails. weakness. nausea.

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Inc.Additional Antioxidants • Copper. iron. . and manganese are part of the superoxide dismutase enzyme antioxidant complex • Iron is part of the catalase structure • Copper. and zinc for blood health • Manganese: important cofactor in carbohydrate metabolism © 2011 Pearson Education. zinc.

Inc. benign (harmless) • Primary steps of cancer development: • Initiation • Promotion • Progression © 2011 Pearson Education. .Cancer • A group of diseases characterized by cells growing “out of control” • Tumors: immature undifferentiated cell masses that have no physiologic function • Malignant (cancerous).

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Cancer Risk • Risk factors • • • • • Tobacco use Unhealthful diet Infectious agents Ultraviolet radiation Physical inactivity ABC Video Tobacco Addiction © 2011 Pearson Education. Inc. .

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Inc. .Cancer Risk • Antioxidants prevent cancer • Enhance immune system • Inhibit cancer cell growth • Prevent oxidative damage to cells © 2011 Pearson Education.

S. Inc.Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) • Leading cause of death in adults (U.) • Diseases of the heart and blood vessels • Coronary heart disease • Hypertension (high blood pressure) • Atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries) • Primary manifestations of CVD • Heart attack • Stroke © 2011 Pearson Education. .

Major Risk Factors for CVD • • • • • Smoking Hypertension High blood levels of LDL cholesterol Obesity Sedentary lifestyle © 2011 Pearson Education. . Inc.

Inc.Other Risk Factors for CVD • Low blood levels of HDL cholesterol • Diabetes • Family history of CVD • Males before age 55 • Females before age 65 • Being male older than 45 years • Being postmenopausal woman © 2011 Pearson Education. .

. break away. resulting in a heart attack or stroke © 2011 Pearson Education. and close off blood supply.Low-Grade Inflammation • More important than elevated cholesterol? • Weakens plaque in blood vessels (more fragile) • Likely to burst. Inc. lodge in blood vessels of heart or brain.

Low-Grade Inflammation • C-reactive protein (CRP) • Marker for inflammation (blood test) • Associated with high risk for heart attack in the presence of normal cholesterol levels • High CRP and high cholesterol can increase the risk for heart attack © 2011 Pearson Education. . Inc.

and whole grains • Dietary fiber (soluble):oatmeal and oat bran • Folate (reduce homocysteine-CVD risk factor) • Others (flavonoids): tea © 2011 Pearson Education. Inc. . vegetables.Antioxidants and CVD • Antioxidants (vitamins E and lycopene) reduce damage to blood vessels: • Scavenge free radicals • Reduce low-grade inflammation • Reduce blood coagulation and clot formation • In fruits.

. Inc.Age-Related Vision Impairment • Macular degeneration • Leading cause of blindness • Deterioration of center portion of retina • Loss of the ability to see details • Cataract • Damaged portion of eye’s lens (cloudy vision) • Impaired adjustment from dark to bright light © 2011 Pearson Education.

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Age-Related Vision Impairment • Possible role of antioxidants • Supplements may reduce progression of macular degeneration • Mixed results from cataract research • Current research does not support the use of antioxidant supplements to prevent these two diseases of aging © 2011 Pearson Education. . Inc.