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LEARNING
OUTCOMES

 To state what menstruation is,
 To relate menstruation to the
menstrual cycle,
 To state the importance of the
menstrual cycle,
 To state the hormones involved in
the menstrual cycle

cells. tissue fluid & glandular secretions.  The breakdown of the lining of the uterus wall & its discharge through the vagina with some blood.  Girls experience menstruation when reach puberty. uterus lining (endometrium wall) and blood through vagina. Discharge of unfertilised ovum. .

• After menstruation. • 1 cycle = 28 days . • The first day of your menstrual period is considered Day 1 of your cycle. the thickening of endometrium begins again  Menstrual cycle.

 Enables production of the female gamete  propagation of species.  Precisely coordinates & synchronises growth of the endometrium & follicular development  ovulation occurs  ovum is released. .  Reduces the chances of development of a defective zygote. To provide a favourable environment for the development of zygote in the uterus.

Hormones involved in the menstrual cycle Hormone involved in menstrual cycle Gonadotrophinreleasing hormone (GnRH) Follicle-stimulating Hormone Luteinising Hormone (LH) Oestrogen Progesterone Location of secretes Hypothalamus Anterior pituitary lobe Anterior pituitary lobe Follicle cell Corpus luteum .

Stimulates the repairing & thickening of endometrium Stimulates ovulation & Luteinising hormone (LH) the formation of corpus luteum Oestrogen .HORMONES Folliclestimulating hormone (FSH) FUNCTION Stimulates the development of egg follicle in the ovary.

 Explain the role of hormones in regulating the menstrual cycle. & the formation of the corpus luteum. . the process of ovulation.  To relate hormonal levels to changes in thickness of the endometrium.LEARNING OUTCOMES  To relate hormonal levels to the development of follicles.

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It is consist of 4 stages 1-5 (stage 1)  menstruation 6-10(stage 2)  Rebuilding the thickening of the uterus lining 11-17(stage 3)  Ovulation period.MENSTRUAL CYCLE The typical menstruation cycle occurs regurlarly over 28 days. . Release of an ovum from the ovary. 18-28(stage 4)  Continued thickening of the uterus lining by increasing of blood and tissue.

 Day 1-5 :  endometrium will be sloughed off (menstruation)  One of the primary follicles develops  Day 6-14 :  The primary follicles becomes Graafian follicle.The beginning….  Graafian follicle releases its ovum (secondary oocyte) around day 14  ovulation .

 If no fertilisation : the corpus luteum eventually degenerates & the whole process is repeated. .In progress….  Day 15-28 :  The remains of the Graafian follicle becomes a yellowish body  corpus luteum.

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 After menstruation. the pituitary gland produces the folliclestimulating hormone (FSH)  stimulates the development of egg follicle in the ovary.The Role of Hormones  The menstrual cycle is controlled by hormones. .

 Level of oestrogen rises. The developing egg follicles secrete another hormone called oestrogen  stimulates the repairing & thickening of endometrium.  High level of oestrogen is detected by the pituitary gland  secretes the luteinising hormone (LH)  stimulates ovulation & the formation of corpus luteum. the endometrium becomes thicker. .

.  If fertilisation does not occur. Corpus luteum secretes progesterone  to maintain the thickening of the endometrium. the corpus luteum degenerates & the level of progesterone falls the endometrium disintegrates & is shed as menstruation.

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LEARNING OUTCOMES  To state what premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is.  To state the menopause is. .

irritability.  Emotional disturbances. appetite changes & depression. headache.  Disappears soon after menstruation begins.Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS)  A few days before menstruation.  Caused by changes in the levels of oestrogen & progesterone  leads to accumulation of salt & water in the body tissues  causes discomfort. . nervousness.

 Her ovaries become less receptive to FSH & LH & follicular development slows down  the level of oestrogen & progesterone fall as well.Menopause  The time in a woman’s life when the ovaries cease to produce ova & menstruation stops  the woman is no longer able to bear any children. .  Between 45-55 years.

   The menstrual cycle becomes longer Menstruation occurs less frequently. Eventually. some women who have undergone menopause may suffer from some health & emotional problems. it stops altogether. .  Due to the low level of oestrogen. Causes the production of ova & the thickening of endometrium decreased  menopause occurs gradually.

giddiness Nausea Abdominal pain Frequent urination Hot flushes & night sweat Dry skin Anxiety Insomnia Inflammation of the joints Decreased concentration & memory power .          Headache.

 Hormone replacement therapy  can slow down the symptoms (pills @ skin patches) . osteoporosis & heart diseases  medical check-up at least once a year. Women who have undergone menopause are at a higher risk of contracting cancer of the uterus.