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# Chapter 3: Fluid

kinematics
The Bernoulli Equation
• Newton’s Second Law
•F=ma along a streamline
•F=ma normal to a streamline
•Physical interpretations
•Static, Stagnation, Dynamic and Total
Pressure
•Examples of use of the Bernoulli Equation
•The energy line and the hydraulic grade line
•Restrictions of use of the Bernoulli Equation

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Newton’s 2

nd

Law

The net force acting on the fluid
particle must equal its mass times its
acceleration
F=ma
For inviscid fluid, we are assuming
that the fluid motion is governed by
pressure and gravity forces only

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Newton’s second law of motion

As a fluid particle moves from one location to another, it usually
experiences an acceleration or deceleration. consider the motion of
inviscid fluids. That is, the fluid is assumed to have zero viscosity.

Streamlines
For steady flows each particle slides along its path, and its velocity
vector is tangent to the path. The lines that are tangent to the velocity
vectors throughout the flow field are called streamlines.

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Physical Interpretation An equivalent form of the Bernoulli Equation Total head p V2   z  H  Constant along a streamline  2g Elevation head -related to potential energy of the particle Velocity head Pressure head -vertical distance needed for the fluid to fall freely (neglecting friction) if it is to reach V from rest -height of the column of fluid that is needed to produce the pressure p Open All rights reserved.  2003 A. Jaafar .

Example 1 Some animals have learned to take advantage of the Bernoulli effect. Open All rights reserved. Assume the air velocity across the back door is 1. Jaafar . is generated to provide a fresh air flow within the burrow.07Vo. p1-p2. When the wind blows with velocity Vo across the front door.  2003 A. what pressure difference. a typical prairie dog burrow contains two entrances – a flat front door and a mounded back door. the average velocity across the back door is greater than Vo because of the mound. For example. For a wind velocity of 6 m/s.

stagnation.Static.  2003 A. Dynamic and Total Pressure 1 p  V 2  z  pT  2 Constant along a streamline Static pressure Actual thermodynamic pressure Dynamic pressure Hydrostatic pressure Total pressure Open All rights reserved. Jaafar .

ρ V2/2 is called dynamic pressure Open All rights reserved. Dynamic The way to measure the static pressure would be to drill a hole in a flat surface and fasten a piezometer tube as indicated by the location of point 3 in Figure. P3=ρgh4-3 Point 2 is a stagnation point.Static.  2003 A. Jaafar . stagnation.

Static. Dynamic and Total Pressure (cont.) Then. p2 is called the stagnation pressure The pressure at stagnation point. p 1 There is a stagnation point on any stationary body that is placed into a flowing fluid Open All rights reserved. p2. is greater than the static pressure.  2003 A. Jaafar . stagnation.

667kg/m3) Open All rights reserved.6cm diameter gas main.Example 2 Natural gas (methane) flow from a 7.8m3/h.2cm of water (take density of methane =0. determine the pressure in the gas main if the pressure in the 2.  2003 A.5cm diameter pipe and in to a burner of a furnace at a rate of 2. through a 2.5cm pipe is to be 15. Jaafar .

 2003 A. p2=0 gage Once outside nozzle. p1=0 gage Fluid leaves as a free jet.Examples of use of the Bernoulli Equation Free Jets Figure 3 : Vertical flow from a tank Assumptions z1=h. Jaafar . p5=0 gage Open All rights reserved. z2=0 Reservoir is large. the stream continues as a free jet. V1=0 Reservoir is open to atmosphere.

Example 3 Determine the flow rate from the tank as shown in figure (Ans.=3. Jaafar .  2003 A.7liters/s) Open All rights reserved.

 2003 A.Example 4 If viscous effects are neglected and the tank is large. Jaafar . determine the flow rate from the tank shown in Fig. Open All rights reserved.

7.Datum line Z1 = 0.  2003 A. V1 = 0. Z2 = 0 and P2 = 0 Open All rights reserved. Jaafar .

 2003 A.2-m difference in the manometer level. (Answer=0. D. determine the flow rate as a function of the diameter of the small pipe.0156m3/s) Open All rights reserved. Jaafar .Example 4 Water flows through the pipe contraction shown in Figure for the given 0.

Example 5 Water flows through the pipe contraction shown in Figure For the given 0. D.2-m difference in the manometer level. Open All rights reserved. Jaafar . determine the flow rate as a function of the diameter of the small pipe.  2003 A.

fluid is confined and its pressure cannot be prescribed a priori – need to use the concept of conservation of mass Figure 5 : Steady flow into and out of a tank Open All rights reserved. Jaafar .  2003 A.Examples of use of the Bernoulli Equation Confined Flows In many cases.

m  AV In such case. a potentially dangerous situation that results when liquid pressure is reduced to vapor pressure and the liquid “boils”.  2003 A. this may result in cavitation.) Q  AV . an increase in velocity (could be due to reduction of flow area) is accompanied by a decrease in pressure For flows of liquids. i. inflow rate must equal to the outflow rate 1 A1V1   2 A2V2 or A1V1  A2V (if incompressible) In general.e. Open All rights reserved.Examples of use of the Bernoulli Equation Confined Flows (cont. mass is conserved. Jaafar . following Bernoulli.

8 Kpa Open All rights reserved. (b) Determine the maximum height. The end of the tube is 0. and viscous effects are negligible. H.08 cm diameter tube as shown in Figure. Atmospheric pressure is 101.9 m below the tank bottom. (a) Determine the volume flow rate from the tank.3 Kpa and the water vapor pressure Is 1.  2003 A. over which the water can be siphoned without cavitation occurring. Jaafar .Example 5 Water is siphoned from a large tank and discharges into the atmosphere through a 5.

well contoured nozzle. Jaafar .  – If exit of tank is not smooth.) Figure 3 : Typical flow patterns and contraction coef.Examples of use of the Bernoulli Equation Free Jets (cont. for various round exit configurations Open All rights reserved. the diameter of the jet will be less than the diameter of the hole – vena contracta effect hole – jet Contraction 2003 A.

Jaafar .Examples of use of the Bernoulli Equation Flowrate measurement Assumptions – steady.  2003 A. inviscid and incompressible Figure 6 : Typical devices for measuring flowrate in pipes Open All rights reserved.

 2003 A.) Between points (1) and (2) p1  12 V12  p2  12 V22 and Q  A1V1  A2V2 hence Q  A2 Open 2( p1  p2 ) 2  1   A2 A1   All rights reserved. Jaafar  .Examples of use of the Bernoulli Equation Flowrate measurement (cont.

Qactual will be smaller than this theoretical results because of the assumptions made in deriving the Bernoulli Equation Other flowmeters based on Bernoulli equation are used to measure flowrates in open channels such as flumes and irrigation ditches.  2003 A. Open All rights reserved.) The actual measured flowrate.Examples of use of the Bernoulli Equation Flowrate measurement (cont. Jaafar .

Determine the flow rate through the Venturi meter shown in figure if ideal conditions exist. Jaafar . (6 liters/s) Open All rights reserved.  2003 A.