Introduction to
Maintenance and reliability is
Maintenance and product quality
Maintenance and productivity
Maintenance and safety
Maintenance and supply chain, JIT
Failure cause disruption, waste,
accident, inconvenience and expensive
Machine and product failure can have
effect on company’s operation and
Losses due to breakdown



Failure – inability to produce work in
appropriate manner
Equipment / machine failure on
production floor – worn out bearing,
pump, pressure leaks, broken shaft,
overheated machine etc.
Equipment failure in office – failure
of power supply, air-conditioned
system, computer network,
photocopy machine
Vehicle failure – brake, transmission,
engine, cooling system

Maintenance in Service Industry        Hospital Restaurants Transport companies Banks Hotels and resorts Shopping malls / retail Gas station 4 .

Maintenance in Manufacturing Companies        Electronic Automotive Petrochemicals Refinery Furniture Ceramics Food and beverages 5 .

a serviceable condition.Maintenance    All actions necessary for retaining an item. inspection and condition verification Increase availability of a system Keep system’s equipment in working order 6 . or restoring to it. repair. modification. include servicing. overhaul.

Question?      Why do we need maintenance? What are the costs of doing maintenance? What are the costs of not doing maintenance? What are the benefits of maintenance? How can maintenance increase profitability of company? 7 .

Purpose of Maintenance     Attempt to maximize performance of production equipment efficiently and regularly Prevent breakdown or failures Minimize production loss from failures Increase reliability of the operating systems 8 .

Principle Objectives in Maintenance      To achieve product quality and customer satisfaction through adjusted and serviced equipment Maximize useful life of equipment Keep equipment safe and prevent safety hazards Minimize frequency and severity of interruptions Maximize production capacity – through high utilization of facility 9 .

delivery. quality.  Must be consistent with the goals of production (cost. safety) Must be comprehensive and include specific responsibilities 10 .

Problems in Maintenance      Lack of management attention to maintenance Little participation by accounting in analyzing and reporting costs Difficulties in applying quantitative analysis Difficulties in obtaining time and cost estimates for maintenance works Difficulties in measuring performance 11 .

Maintenance Costs     Cost to replace or repair Losses of output Delayed shipment Scrap and rework 12 .

’s capability X X Increase spare parts supply X Increase standby machines X Increase in-process inventories X 13 .Maintenance Policies that Reduce Frequency and Severity of Malfunctions Reduces Reduces Maintenance Policy Frequency Severity Emphasize preventive maintenance X X Provide extra machines X Replace machine parts early X Involve operators in maintenance X X Overdesign machines X Design machines for maintainability X Enhance maint. dept.

Types of Maintenance   Maintenance may be classified into four categories: (some authors prefer three categories.scheduled and preventive maintenances are merged)  Corrective or Breakdown maintenance  Scheduled maintenance  Preventive maintenance  Predictive (Condition-based) 14 .

1. Corrective or Breakdown Maintenance   Corrective or Breakdown maintenance implies that repairs are made after the equipment is failed and can not perform its normal function anymore The unscheduled maintenance or repair to return items/equipment to a defined state and carried out because maintenance persons or users perceived deficiencies or failures 15 .

 Quite justified in small factories where:  Down times are non-critical and repair costs are less than other type of maintenance  Financial justification for scheduling are not felt 16 .

Disadvantages of Corrective Maintenance        Breakdown generally occurs inappropriate times leading to poor and hurried maintenance Excessive delay in production & reduces output Faster plant deterioration Increases chances of accidents and less safety for both workers and machines More spoilt materials Direct loss of profit Can not be employed for equipments 17 .

2. 5. Preparation time Fault location time Spare item obtainment time Fault correction time Adjustment and calibration time Checkout time 18 .Repair time include 1. 4. 3. 6.

2.Time reduction in corrective maintenance 1. 5. 3. and isolation Effective interchangeability Redundancy Effective accessibility Human factor considerations 19 . location. Efficiency in fault recognition. 4.

Types Corrective maintenance 20 .

overhaul. 21 .Types of corrective maintenance Fail-repair: The failed item is restored to its operational state. Salvage: This element of corrective maintenance is concerned with disposal of non repairable material and use of salvaged material from non repairable equipment/item in the repair. or rebuild programs.

life expectancy. This is achieved through complete disassembly. and reassembly and testing to original production guidelines. 22 .Rebuild: This is concerned with restoring an item to a standard as close as possible to original state in performance. examination of all components. and appearance. repair and replacement of worn/unserviceable parts as per original specification and manufacturing tolerances.

Servicing: Servicing may be needed because of the corrective maintenance action. welding on.Overhaul: Restoring an item to its total serviceable state as per maintenance serviceability standards. etc. engine repair can lead to crankcase refill. for example. using the “inspect and repair only as appropriate” approach. Another example could be that the replacement of an air bottle may require system recharging 23 .

24 . Scheduled Maintenance    Scheduled maintenance  inspection  lubrication  repair and overhaul of equipments If neglected can result in breakdown Generally followed for:  overhauling of machines  changing of heavy equipment oils  cleaning of water and other tanks etc.2.

3. periodic. and specific schedule to keep an item/equipment in stated working condition through the process of checking and reconditioning. rather than correcting 25 them after they occur . Preventive Maintenance (PM)   Principle – “Prevention is better than cure” All actions carried out on a planned. These actions are precautionary steps undertaken to forestall or lower the probability of failures or an unacceptable level of degradation in later service.

  It locates weak spots of machinery and equipments It provides them periodic/scheduled inspections and minor repairs to reduce the danger of unanticipated breakdowns 26 .

and correction of incipient (beginning to happen or develop) failures either prior to their occurrence or prior to their development into major failure 27 . PM may be described as the care and servicing by individuals involved with maintenance to keep equipment/facilities in satisfactory operational state by providing for systematic inspection. detection.

Elements of preventive maintenance 28 .

etc. of items/materials periodically to prevent the occurrence of incipient failures 29 . etc. charging.Elements of preventive maintenance Inspection: Periodically inspecting materials/items to determine their serviceability by comparing their physical. preservation. lubricating.. characteristics (as applicable) to expected standards Servicing: Cleaning. mechanical. electrical..

one of which is certified standard with known accuracy.Calibration: Periodically determining the value of characteristics of an item by comparison to a standard. to detect and adjust any discrepancy in the accuracy of the material/parameter being compared to the established standard value Testing: Periodically testing or checking out to determine serviceability and detect electrical/mechanical-related degradation 30 . it consists of the comparison of two instruments.

Alignment: Making changes to an item’s specified variable elements for the purpose of achieving optimum performance Adjustment: Periodically adjusting specified variable elements of material for the purpose of achieving the optimum system performance Installation: Periodic replacement of limited-life items or the items experiencing time cycle or wear degradation. to maintain the specified system tolerance 31 .

Advantages of PM  Advantages: Reduces break down and thereby down time Less odd-time repair and reduces over time of crews Greater safety of workers Lower maintenance and repair costs Less stand-by equipments and spare parts Better product quality and fewer reworks and scraps Increases plant life  32 .

such as audio gauge. Predictive (Condition-based) Maintenance  In predictive maintenance.4. vibration analyzer. repair or overhaul  It makes use of human sense and other sensitive instruments. pressure. 33 . amplitude meter. temperature and resistance strain gauges etc. such as machine adjustment. machinery conditions are periodically monitored and this enables the maintenance crews to take timely actions.

   Unusual sounds coming out of a rotating equipment predicts a trouble An excessively hot electric cable predicts a trouble Simple hand touch can point out many unusual equipment conditions and thus predicts a trouble 34 .

Maintenance Costs Cost Breakdown Cost Maintenance Commitment 35 .

Maintenance Costs Cost PM Cost Breakdown Cost Maintenance Commitment 36 .

Maintenance Costs Cost Total Maintenance Cost PM Cost Breakdown Cost Maintenance Commitment 37 .

Maintenance Costs Cost Total Maintenance Cost PM Cost Breakdown Cost Optimal Maintenance Commitment 38 .