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1. External customers include ultimate users (current and potential) and also intermediate processors, as well as retailers. 2. Internal customers include other divisions of a company that are provided with information or components for an assembly and also departments or persons that supply products to each other.
These external and internal customers are sometimes called “stakeholders”.
Delapan Dimensi Kualitas (Garvin,1987)
1.Performance 2.Features 3.Reliability 4.Conformance 5.Durability 6.Serviceability 7.Aesthetics 8.Perceived value
Two dimensions of quality: features and freedom from deficiencies
Manufacturing industries Performance Reliability Durability Ease of use Serviceability Esthetics Availability of options and expandability Reputation Service industries Accuracy Timeliness Completeness Friendliness and courtesy Anticipating customer needs Knowledge of server Appearance of facilities and personnel Reputation
Freedom from deficiencies
Product free of defects and errors at delivery, during use, and during servicing All processes free of rework loops, redundancy, and other waste Service free of errors during original and future service transactions
All processes free of rework loops, redundancy, and other waste
have a major effect on sales income
Level or grade of quality desired The quality of design
Increasing the quality of the design generally leads to higher cost
Freedom from deficiencies
has a major effect on cost through reductions in scrap, rework, complaints, and other results of deficiencies.
Errors, defects, failures, off-specification
Quality of conformance
Increasing the quality of conformance usually results in lower costs, fewer complaints and decreased customer dissatisfaction
1. QUALITY OF DESIGN
the ability of a product as designed to satisfy or exceed customer requirements is the term used to connote that the manufactured product consistently upholds the requirements as set in the product design: defect detection: inspection, test, and analysis of product using statistical sampling procedures to determine the presence of defects and to draw conclusions about the quality of an overall process or batch. Defect detection helps ensure that the product going to the customer is OK, but it does nothing to improve the quality of the product. defect prevention: includes monitoring and controlling process variations. The goal is to prevent defects (error-proofing or fool-proofing procedures).
2. QUALITY OF CONFORMANCE
Two views of quality:
Compare product to specification Get product accepted at inspection Prevent plant and field defects Concentrate on manufacturing Use internal quality measures View quality as a technical issue Efforts coordinated by quality manager
Compare product to competition and to the best Provide satisfaction over product life Meet customer needs on goods and services Cover all functions Use customer-based quality measures View quality as a business issue Efforts directed by upper management