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Ms. Susan M.

Pojer
Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua,
NY
Theories on prehistory and early
man constantly change as new
evidence comes to light.
- Louis Leakey, British
paleoanthropologist
1.
1. 4,000,000
4,000,000 BCE
BCE –– 1,000,000
1,000,000 BCE
BCE
Paleolithic
Paleolithic Age
Age:: 2.
2. 1,500,000
1,500,000 BCE
BCE --
-- 250,000
250,000 BCE
BCE
(( Old
Old Stone
Stone Age
Age ))
2,500,000
2,500,000 BCE
BCE 3.
3. 250,000
250,000 BCE
BCE –– 30,000
30,000 BCE
BCE
to
to 8,000
8,000 BCE
BCE
4. 30,000 BCE -- 10,000 BCE
 “Paleolithic” --> “Old Stone” Age
 2,500,000
2,500,000 BCE
BCE –– 10,000
10,000 BCE
BCE
 Made
Made tools
tools

 hunting
hunting ((men
men)) &
& gathering
gathering ((women
women))
 small
small bands
bands of
of 20-30
20-30 humans
humans
 NOMADIC
NOMADIC (moving
(moving from
from place
place to
to place)
place)
4,000,000 BCE – 1,000,000 BCE

 Hominids
Hominids -->
--> any
any member
member
of
of the
the family
family of
of two-legged
two-legged
primates
primates that
that includes
includes all
all
humans.
humans.

 Australopithecines
Australopithecines

 An
Apposable
AnApposable
Thumb
Thumb
 HOMO HABILIS
(( “Man
“Man of
of Skills”
Skills” ))

 found
found in
in East
East Africa.
Africa.

 created
created stone
stone tools.
tools.
 Humans
Humans during
during this
this period
period found
found shelter
shelter in
in caves.
caves.
 Cave
Cave paintings
paintings left
left behind.
behind.

Purpose??
1,6000,000 BCE – 30,000 BCE
 HOMO ERECTUS
(( “Upright
“Upright Human
Human Being”
Being” ))

 BIPEDALISM
BIPEDALISM

 Larger
Larger and
and more
more varied
varied
tools
tools -->
--> primitive
primitive technology
technology

 First
First hominid
hominid to
to migrate
migrate and
and
leave
leave Africa
Africa for
for Europe
Europe and
and
Asia.
Asia.

 First
First to
to use
use fire
fire (( 500,000
500,000 BCE
BCE ))
Are we all Africans “under the skin”????
200,000 BCE – 10,000 BCE

HOMO SAPIENS
(( “Wise
“Wise Human
Human Being”
Being” ))

Neanderthals
Neanderthals Cro-Magnons
Cro-Magnons
(( 200,000
200,000 BCE
BCE –– 30,000
30,000 BCE
BCE )) (( 40,000
40,000 BCE
BCE –– 10,000
10,000 BCE
BCE ))
NEANDERTHALS:
 Neander
Neander Valley,
Valley,
Germany
Germany (1856)
(1856)

 First
First humans
humans to
to bury
bury
their
their dead.
dead.

 Made
Made clothes
clothes from
from
animal
animal skins.
skins.

 Lived
Lived in
in caves
caves and
and
tents.
tents.
NEANDERTHALS

Early
Early Hut/Tent
Hut/Tent
CRO-MAGNONs:
 Homo
Homo sapiens
sapiens sapiens
sapiens
(( “Wise,
“Wise, wise
wise human”
human” ))

 By 30,000 BCE they


WHY???
WHY???
replaced Neanderthals.
70,000 BCE – 10,000 BCE
 “Neolithic”  “New Stone” Age

 10,000 BCE – 4,000 BCE

 Gradual shift from:


Nomadic
Nomadic lifestyle
lifestyle  settled,
settled, stationery
stationery lifestyle.
lifestyle.
Hunting/Gathering
Hunting/Gathering  agricultural
agricultural production
production and
and
domestication
domestication of
of animals.
animals.
 8,000
8,000 BCE
BCE – 5,000
5,000 BCE
BCE

 Agriculture
Agriculture developed
developed independently
independently in
in
different
different parts
parts of
of the
the world.
world.
 SLASH-AND-BURN
SLASH-AND-BURN Farming
Farming

Middle
Middle East
East India
India Central
Central America
America China
China Southeast
Southeast Asia
Asia

8,000
8,000 BCE
BCE 7,000
7,000 BCE
BCE 6,500
6,500 BCE
BCE 6,000
6,000 BCE
BCE 5,000
5,000 BCE
BCE
? ?

Development
Development
of
of Agriculture
Agriculture

? ?
Why do you think the
development of
agriculture occurred
around the same time in
several different places?
Why do some
archaeologists believe
that women were the
first farmers?
 Growing
Growing crops
crops on
on aa regular
regular basis
basis made
made possible
possible the
the
support
support of
of larger
larger populations.
populations.
 More
More permanent,
permanent, settled
settled communities
communities emerged.
emerged.

 9,000
9,000 BCE
BCE  Earliest
Earliest Agricultural
Agricultural Settlement
Settlement at
at
JARMO
JARMO (( northern
northern Iraq
Iraq ))  wheat
wheat
 8,000
8,000 BCE
BCE  Largest
Largest Early
Early Settlement
Settlement at
at Ç
Çatal
atal H
Hüüyük
yük
(( Modern
Modern Turkey
Turkey ))  6,000
6,000 inhabitants
inhabitants
 12
12 cultivated
cultivated crops
crops

 Division
Division of
of labor
labor

 Engaged
Engaged in
in trade
trade

 Organized religion
An obsidian dagger
 Small
Small military
military
Çatal Hüyük
What role did the food
supply play in shaping
the nomadic life of
hunter-gatherers and
the settled life of the
farmers?
Advanced Advanced

Cities Technology

Specialized Record-

Workers Keeping

Complex

Institutions

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