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BIOGRAPHY

SIGMUND FREUD
biodata
• Full Name : Sigismund Schlomo Freud
• Born : May 6, 1856) Freiberg, Moravia, now the
Czech Republic
• Residence : Austria, (later) England
• Nationality : Austrian
• Ethnicity : Jewish
• Father’s Name : Jacob
• Mother’s Name : Amalie
• Died : September 23, 1939 (aged 83) London, England
• Field : Neurology, Psychiatry, Psychology, Psychotherapy,
Psychoanalysis
• Institutions : University of Vienna
• Alma mater : University of Vienna
• Academic advisor : Jean-Martin Charcot, (later) Josef Breuer
• Notable students : Alfred Adler, John Bowlby, Viktor Frankl,
Anna Freud, Ernest Jones, Carl Jung, Melanie Klein,
Jacques Lacan, Fritz Perls, Otto Rank, Wilhelm Reich,
Donald Winnicott
• Known for : Psychoanalysis
• Notable prizes : Goethe Prize
Early study
• Owing to his precocious intellect, his parents favoured him
over his siblings from the early stages of his childhood;
and despite their poverty, they offered everything to give
him a proper education.
• Due to the economic crisis of 1857, father Freud lost his
business, and the family moved first to Leipzig, Germany.
• In 1865, Sigmund entered the Leopoldstädter Communal
Realgymnasium, a prominent high school
• Graduated the Matura in 1873 with honors.
• After planning to study law, Freud joined the medical
faculty at University of Vienna to study under Darwinist
Prof. Karl Claus
• In 1876, he published his first paper about "the testicles of
eels" in the "Mitteilungen der österreichischen Akademie
der Wissenschaften“.
Early work
•• In
In 1874,
1874, the
Lectures
the concept
concept of
of ""psychodynamics
psychodynamics"" was
was proposed
proposed with
with the
the publication
publication of
of
Lectures on
on Physiology
Physiology byby German
German physiologist
physiologist Ernst
Ernst Wilhelm
Wilhelm von
von Brücke
Brücke who,
who, in
in
coordination
coordination withwith physicist
physicist Hermann
Hermann von von Helmholtz
Helmholtz,, oneone ofof the
the formulators
formulators of of the
the
first
first law
law of
of thermodynamics
thermodynamics ((conservation
conservation of of energy
energy), ), supposed
supposed thatthat all
all living
living
organisms
organisms are are energy-systems
energy-systems also also governed
governed by by this
this principle.
principle. During
During this
this year,
year, at
at
the
the University
University ofof Vienna
Vienna,, Brücke
Brücke served
served asas supervisor
supervisor for for first-year
first-year medical
medical student
student
Sigmund
Sigmund Freud
Freud whowho adopted
adopted this
this new
new "dynamic"
"dynamic" physiology.
physiology. In In his
his Lectures
Lectures on on
Physiology
Physiology,, Brücke
Brücke set
set forth
forth the
the radical
radical view
view that
that the
the living
living organism
organism is is a
a
dynamic
dynamic system
system to to which
which the
the laws
laws of
of chemistry
chemistry and
and physics
physics apply.
apply.[7]
[7] This
This was
was the
the
starting
starting point
point for
for Freud's
Freud's dynamic
dynamic psychology
psychology of of the
the mind
mind andand its
its relation
relation to to the
the
unconscious
unconscious..[7] [7] The
The origins
origins of
of Freud’s
Freud’s basic
basic model,
model, based
based on on the
the fundamentals
fundamentals of of
chemistry
chemistry and and physics,
physics, according
according toto John
John Bowlby
Bowlby,, stems
stems from
from Brücke
Brücke,, Meynert
Meynert,,
Breuer
Breuer,, Helmholtz
Helmholtz,, andand Herbart
Herbart..[8]
[8] In
In 1879,
1879, Freud
Freud interrupted
interrupted his his studies
studies to to complete
complete
his
his one
one year
year ofof obligatory
obligatory military
military service,
service, and
and in
in 1881
1881 hehe received
received his his Dr.
Dr. med.
med.
(M.D.)
(M.D.) with
with the
the thesis
thesis "Über
"Über das
das Rückenmark
Rückenmark niederer
niederer Fischarten"
Fischarten" (on (on the
the spinal
spinal cord
cord
of lower fish species).
of lower fish species).
Freud
Freud and
and
Psychoanalysis
Psychoanalysis
• Group
Group photo
photo 1909
1909 in
in front
front
of
of Clark
Clark University
University.. Front
Front
row:
row: Sigmund
Sigmund Freud,
Freud,
Granville
Granville Stanley
Stanley Hall
Hall,,
C.G.Jung
C.G.Jung;; back
back row:
row:
Abraham
Abraham A. A. Brill
Brill,,
Ernest
Ernest Jones
Jones,,
Sandor
Sandor Ferenczi
Ferenczi..
•• Freud
Freud married
married Martha
Martha Bernays
Bernays in
in 1886
1886,, after
after
opening
opening hishis own
own medical
medical practice,
practice, specializing
specializing
in
in neurology
neurology.. After
After experimenting
experimenting with with hypnosis
hypnosis
on
on his neurotic patients, Freud abandoned this
his neurotic patients, Freud abandoned this
form
form ofof treatment
treatment as as itit proved
proved ineffective
ineffective forfor
many,
many, in in favor
favor of of aa treatment
treatment where where the the patient
patient
talked
talked through
through his his or
or her
her problems.
problems. This This came
came
to
to be
be known
known as as the
the "talking
"talking cure",
cure", though
though
feeling
feeling cure
cure may
may have
have beenbeen more
more accurate,
accurate, as as
the
the ultimate
ultimate goalgoal ofof this
this talking
talking waswas toto locate
locate
and
and release
release powerful
powerful emotional
emotional energy
energy thatthat had
had
initially
initially been
been rejected,
rejected, and and imprisoned
imprisoned in in the
the
unconscious
unconscious mind. mind. Freud
Freud called
called this
this denial
denial of of
emotions
emotions "repression", and he believed that it
"repression ", and he believed that it
was
was often
often damaging
damaging to to the
the normal
normal functioning
functioning
of
of the
the psyche,
psyche, and and could
could also
also retard
retard physical
physical
functioning
functioning as as well,
well, which
which he he described
described as as ""
psychosomatic
psychosomatic"" symptoms.
symptoms. (The (The term
term "talking
"talking
cure"
cure" was
was initially
initially coined
coined by by the
the patient
patient Anna
Anna O. O.
who
who was
was treated
treated by by Freud's
Freud's colleague
colleague
Josef
Josef Breuer
Breuer.) .) The
The "talking
"talking cure"
cure" isis widely
widely seen
seen
as
as the
the basis
basis ofof psychoanalysis.
psychoanalysis.[9] [9]
•• There
There has
has long
long been
been dispute
dispute about
about the
the
possibility that a romantic liaison
possibility that a romantic liaison blossomed blossomed
between
between Freud
Freud and and his
his sister-in-law,
sister-in-law, Minna
Minna
Bernays, who had moved
Bernays, who had moved into Freud's into Freud's
apartment
apartment at at 19
19 Berggasse
Berggasse in in 1896
1896.. It
It has
has been
been
suggested
suggested that that the
the affair
affair resulted
resulted in in aa
pregnancy
pregnancy and and subsequently
subsequently an an abortion
abortion forfor
Miss
Miss Bernays.
Bernays. A A hotel
hotel loglog dated
dated August
August 13 13,,
1898
1898 seems
seems to to support
support the the allegation
allegation of of an
an
affair.
affair. Freud's
Freud's apartment
apartment at
at 19
19
Berggasse
Berggasse
•• In
In 1930,
1930, Freud
Freud received
received the
the Goethe
Goethe Prize
Prize in
in appreciation
appreciation of
of his
his
contribution
contribution to to psychology
psychology andand toto German
German literary
literary culture.
culture.
•• Three
Three years
years later
later the
the Nazis
Nazis took
took control
control ofof Germany
Germany and and Freud's
Freud's
books
books featured
featured prominently
prominently among
among those
those burned
burned byby the
the Nazis
Nazis..
•• Freud
Freud decided
decided to to go
go into
into exile
exile "to
"to die
die in
in freedom".
freedom". He He and
and his
his family
family
left
left Vienna
Vienna in in June
June 1938
1938 and
and traveled
traveled toto London
London..
•• A
A heavy
heavy cigar
cigar smoker,
smoker, Freud
Freud endured
endured more
more than
than 30
30 operations
operations
during
during his
his life
life due
due toto mouth
mouth cancer
cancer.. In
In September
September 1939
1939 hehe prevailed
prevailed
on
on his
his doctor
doctor andand friend
friend Max
Max Schur
Schur to
to assist
assist him
him in
in suicide.
suicide.
•• Schur
Schur administered
administered three three doses
doses ofof morphine
morphine overover many
many hours
hours that
that
resulted
resulted inin Freud's
Freud's death
death onon September
September 23, 23, 1939
1939
•• Freud's
Freud's body
body waswas cremated
cremated at at Golders
Golders Green
Green Crematorium
Crematorium in in
England
England during
during a a service
service attended
attended by by Austrian
Austrian refugees,
refugees, including
including
the
the author
author Stefan
Stefan Zweig
Zweig..
Freud's ideas
• Freud
Freud has
has been
been influential
influential in
in two
two related
related
but
but distinct
distinct ways.
ways. He
He simultaneously
simultaneously
developed
developed a a theory
theory of
of how
how the
the human
human
mind
mind isis organized
organized andand operates
operates
internally,
internally, and
and how
how human
human behavior
behavior
both
both conditions
conditions and
and results
results from
from this
this
particular
particular theoretical
theoretical understanding.
understanding.
This
This led
led him
him to
to favor
favor certain
certain clinical
clinical
techniques
techniques for for attempting
attempting toto help
help cure
cure
psychopathology
psychopathology
Freud memorial
• Sigmund
Sigmund Freud
Freud memorial
memorial
in
in Hampstead
Hampstead,, North
North
London.
London. Sigmund
Sigmund and and
Anna
Anna Freud
Freud lived
lived at at 20
20
Maresfield
Maresfield Gardens,
Gardens, near near
to
to this
this statue.
statue. Their
Their house
house
is
is now
now aa museum
museum
dedicated
dedicated to to Freud's
Freud's lifelife
and
and work.
work. [1]
[1] The
The building
building
behind
behind thethe statue
statue is is the
the
Tavistock
Tavistock Clinic
Clinic,, aa major
major
psychiatric
psychiatric institution.
institution.
…THE END…
• TENGKU MARIA

• NURUL NOOR NADIRAH

• MAILANI

AZIZAH

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• SHAMIEELA FARIHA
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