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Fluid Loss and

Diverting Agents

Printed: 09/01/15

EDC, Tomball, TX

Fluid Loss and


Diverting Concepts

Objectives:
To minimize losses of fluids to the producing
formation
To obtain even distribution of the fluid over
the entire interval to be treated

Revised

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Fluid Loss and


Diverting Concepts (cont.)

Problems
Multiple permeabilities

Fluids follow the path of least resistance

Low permeabilities

Require higher injection pressures

Removal of diverting agents

Clean up fluid is lost to higher permeability

Dissolution of fluid loss agents

Fluid flow required

Damage to permeability

Revised

Slide 3

Fluid Loss and


Diverting Concepts (cont.)

Solutions
Diverting

Create a barrier at the point of entry or within the


matrix
Results in an artificial pressure barrier at the point
of fluid entry

Fluid loss agents

Revised

Ensure solubility in produced fluids


Careful selection of fluid loss agent

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Fluid Loss and


Diverting Agents (cont.)

Solids
Oil soluble resins (FLC-11)
Benzoic acid flakes (Divert III)
Precipitates

Ammonium Benzoate (FLC-18)


Resin (SAF-MK II)

Graded Salts
Graded Calcium Carbonate

Revised

Slide 5

Fluid Loss and


Diverting Agents (cont.)

Foam
Nitrogen
Carbon Dioxide
Binary (CO2/N2)

Revised

Slide 6

Foam Diversion Guidelines

Treatment design must take into account


wellbore volume, transit time, treated
interval length, and permeability
Foam slug size in sandstone formations is
about 1 - 2 bbls/ft of diverted interval
Foam slug size in carbonates is based on
the volume of acid created void space
Continuous diversion can be used when
pumping acid such as HCL without HF
Foam quality should be 60 to 80

Revised

Slide 7

Combined Diverters
12 bbl foam diverter pill consisting of 100 gals
Divert 3 (benzoic acid flakes) + 10 gals FAW-1
(foaming agent) mixed with 400 gals 10% HCL +
0.4% CI-25 (corrosion inhibitor) + 25 ppt
Ferrotrol-210 (iron reducing agent) + 50 ppt
Ferrotrol-810 (iron chelating agent). The
resulting gel is then foamed with 3200 scf/bbl
Nitrogen to produce a 70 quality foam.

Revised

Slide 8

Fluid Loss and


Diverting Agents (cont.)

Gels and viscous fluids.


Hydroxy Ethyl Cellulose
XC Polymers
CMHEC (Clean Plug)
CMHPG (High Temp Clean Plug of High Temp
Bridging Agent))
Viscoelastic Surfactant-based Diverting Agent

Revised

Slide 9

Fluid Loss and


Diverting Agents (cont.)

Mechanical methods
Opposing cup wash tools
Bridge plugs
Packers

Ball Sealers

Revised

Slide 10

Fluid Loss and Diverting


Agents Applications

Solids

Perforations
Slotted Liners
Gravel Packs
Open Hole

Particle size is critical with slotted liners


and gravel packs

Revised

Slide 11

Fluid Loss and Diverting


Agents Applications (cont.)

Foams
Any type of completion

Gels and viscous fluids


Any type of completion

Mechanical methods
Perforations
Slotted liners

Revised

not matrix diverting only, but cleaning of the slots

Slide 12

Fluid Loss and Diverting


Agents Applications (cont.)

Ball sealers
Perforations only

Revised

Slide 13

Diverter Treatment Design


Considerations

Staged versus continuous number of


diverter stages
Wellbore configuration
Formation properties
Length of interval

Volume and concentration


Technical literature
Case histories

Revised

Slide 14

Diverter Treatment Design


Considerations (cont.)

Post flush design


Clean up rate
Exposure to produced fluids

Treatment fluid design


Volumes, additives, acid strength etc.
Apparent treatment failure due to other
parameters

Design from job histories

Revised

Slide 15

Solvents for Fluid Loss and


Diverting Agents
Additive

Solvent

Oil Soluble Resins

Toluene, Xylene, condensate, oil.

Polymer

15% HCl.

Salt

Water, dilute HCl ( <10% ).

Wax beads

Toluene, Xylene, certain oils.

Naphthalene Flakes

Toluene, Xylene, certain oils.

Benzoic Acid Flakes

Toluene, Xylene, certain oils, gas,


water (if allowed to soak)

Revised

Slide 16

Solvents for Fluid Loss and


Diverting Agents
Additive

Solvent

Paraformaldehyde

Hot water, hot HCl ( > 125 F)


(Maximum temperature 220 F)

Calcium Carbonate

HCl

Sand

none

Moth Balls

Oil (Maximum temperature 150 F)

Sulphamic acid

Water

Divert II

Oil, Kerosene, water


(Maximum temperature 300 F)

Unibeads

Oil (Maximum temperature varies)

Revised

Slide 17

BJ Services Fluid Loss and Diverting


Agents
Product

Description

Soluble In

FLC-1
FLC-2
FLC-10
FLC-11
FLC-18
Benzoic Acid
Divert V
SDA-04
SDA-05

Polymer Blend
Oil Soluble Resin
OSR Slurry
OSR Slurry
Benzoic Acid Solution
Organic Acid Solid
Wax Prill, 20/30 Mesh
Wax Prill, 20/30 Mesh
Wax Prill & Buttons

Oil, Acid
Oil, Distillate
Oil, Distillate
Oil, Distillate
Oil, Water, Acid
Oil, Water, Acid
Oil, Distillate
Oil, Distillate
Oil, Distillate

Revised

Slide 18

BJ Services Fluid Loss and Diverting


Agents (cont.)
Product

Description

Soluble In

Rock Salt
-Trimix

Graded Salt Blend

Water, Weak Acid

Moth Balls

Napthalene

Oil

Others:

Revised

Ball Sealers, Foam, RXL Gels, Inert Solids,


GW-21R (HEC)

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