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Brand Image &


Brand Image
 Brand image can be defined as “ perceptions
about a brand as reflected by the
associations held in consumer memory”.
 Brand Image is a perceptual construct. It
varies depending upon the receiver’s
(consumer’s) own ‘looking glass’ or
perceptual fitter

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 Sometimes, the notions people have about a
brand do not even seem very sensible or
relevant to those who know what the product
is ‘really’ like. But they all contribute to the
customer’s decision whether or not the brand
is the one “for me”.

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 Brand Personality is the sum total of all the
significant tangible & intangible assets that a
brand possesses

 Brand Image is how the brand is perceived

by the consumer. In the words, brand
personality is the cause while brand image is
the effect
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Brand image & Brand
Brand Name Brand Brand Image
Lifebuoy Soap Price Value for money
Carbolic hardworking
Kinetic Honda Gearless Comfort
Ignition start
Little Hearts Puffed biscuits novelty
Distinct packing Attractive
Heart shaped Romantic

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Brand Image Dimensions
 A brand in a consumer’s mind is a complex network of
associations. Biel proposes that these associations can be of
two types:
 Hard Associations: refer to the tangible/functional attributes of a
brand.Eg. Car: speed, price, fuel economy per litre of petrol,
 Soft Associations: are more emotional. A car brand can be
visualized as exciting, vibrant, youthful.
Maruti Alto: Youthfulness, excitement, attractiveness.
Indian Airlines (negative soft association): inefficiency, dull, old,

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A brand image has three
1.Image of the company: Every brand carries
an invisible shadow of its manufacturer. Like
brands, companies also live in consumer’s
mind as a network of associations.
Wipro: leader, technology savvy, modern,
innovations, cash rich, diversified, growth.

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2.Image of the User:
The user image in case of ‘Pepsi’ is embodied
in its slogan ‘choice of the new generation’ or
‘Generation Next’

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3.Product Image:
All products have dimensions like functionality
and emotionality, technology intensiveness,
old & young, inherent to them.
Products like perfumes, chocolates,
champagne, whisky, high end clothing tend to
be associated with emotions and a lot of
Products like house cleaners, headache
remedies, dishwashing liquids tend to be
driven by functionality
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Brand Identity
 Aaker defines brand identity as “ a unique set
of brand associations that the brand strategist
aspires to create or maintain. These
associations represent what the brand stands
for and imply a promise to customers from
the organization members.”

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Kapferer’s Framework
 Kapferer arranges the elements of brand
identity in a different fashion. But eventually,
he like Aaker represents it as a sum of
certain tangible & intangible elements.
Kapferer represents brand identity
diagrammatically as a 6 sided prism.

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Brand Identity Prism
Picture of Sender

Physique Personality

Relationship Culture

Reflection Self-Image

Picture of Recipient

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Brand Identity Prism: BPL
Picture of Sender
Physique: round blue Personality:
& white logo, reliable, ambitious,
electronic appliances perfectionist

Relationship: Bring Culture:

home comfort, trust & professionalism,
confidence innovation
Reflection: People Self-Image: Stickler
who seek good for the best
things, have taste
Picture of Recipient

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 Physique according to him is the basis of the
brand. The physique of Philips is ‘technology
and reliability’ while for the brand Tata is trust
 Personality answers the question, “what
happens to this brand when it becomes a
 Culture symbolizes the organization, its
country of origin and the values it stands for.
India is known for its traditional remedies
which is why Dabur and Zandu evoke a good
response abroad
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 Relationship is the handshake between the
consumer and the organization. The
relationship with Colgate is one of
 Reflection is consumer’s perception of what
the brand stands for. Pepsi – youthful
 Self-Image is what the consumer thinks of
himself. A Mercedes owner is telling himself
that since he is one of the elite, he is treating
himself to the best car in the world. A user of
Surf is telling herself that she is conscious of
not just price but value as well.
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Brand Identity Dimensions


Brand As Product Brand as Brand As Brand As

Organization Person Symbol
1. Product
Attributes 1. Organizational 1. Personality 1. Visual
Attributes (energetic, Imagery and
2. Quality/Value
(innovation, rugged) metaphors
3. Uses consumer
2. Brand-
4. Users customer
5. Country of origin

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Brand as a product
 ‘Cherry Blossom’ is strongly associated with boot
 Head & Shoulders has a strong product attribute
association (micro ZPTO)
 User/usage occasions- Johnson & Johnson
products are meant for babies. Ujala has
established its association with post wash
whitening of clothes. Nescafe has been trying to
associate itself with morning beverage (“the taste
that gets you started”)

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Brand as an organization
 Innovation (Hewlett Packard)
 Service Orientation (Xerox)

 Quality

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Brand as a symbol
 Some of the brands have invested
consistently in building strong symbols
‘Golden Arches’

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 The symbol may indirectly deliver functional, self
expressive or emotional benefit to the customer
 LIC – two cupped hands protecting a lamp. It is a
very powerful metaphor for what LIC stands for: ‘the
cover against risk & provision of protection’.
 Kelvinator’s symbol suggests the product’s essence-
‘the coolest one’.
 ‘three petal’ symbol employed by ‘Ponds’ is a
metaphor for delicate, feminine, & fragrant floral
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