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Braking System
The mechanism which is used to slow
and stop the vehicle is known as
braking system

Principle of braking system

The kinetic energy is converted into
heat energy due to friction

Need for brakes

1. To stop or slow down the vehicle
2. To control the vehicle descending a
3. To keep the vehicle in desired
position in rest

Requirements of Braking
1. It should have good anti-fade characteristics
2. It should be consistent with safety
3. It should not be skidding while applying
4. It should have better cooling system
5. It should be strong enough to stop the
vehicle with a minimum distance
6. It should be less weight
7. It should be reliable

1. According to the applications
i. Service or running or foot brake
ii. Parking or emergency or handbrake

2. According to the number of wheels

i. Two wheel brakes
ii. Four wheel brakes

3. According to the brake gear


Mechanical brake
a) Hand brake
b) Foot brake

ii. Power brake

a) Booster
b) Non-booster

4. According to construction
i. Drum brake
ii. Disc brake

5. According to location
i. Transmission brakes
ii. Wheel brakes

6. According to method of braking

i. Internal expanding brakes
ii. External expanding brakes

7. According to the power unit

i. Cylinder brake
ii. Diaphragm brake

8. According to power transmission

i. Direct acting brake
ii. Geared brake

9. According to method of applying

brake force
i. Single acting brake
ii. Double acting brake

10. According to power employed


Vacuum brakes
a) Atmospheric suspended
b) Vacuum suspended


Air brakes
Hydraulic brakes
Hydrostatic brakes
Electric brakes

Drum Brake

Types of drum brakes

1. External contracting brakes
2. Internal expanding brakes

External contracting brakes

Internal expanding brakes

When the cam is turned, the shoes
with brake linings will be forced
against the drum
The brake lining produce friction
between the rotating drum and
expanding shoes
The force of friction stops the vehicle

Brakes Shoes
They are made of cast iron or steel or
Aluminium is widely used due to low
Brake shoes are made of T-section
Pressed steel brake shoes are used
for modern vehicles

Primary shoe or Leading

The shoe drags along the drum
produces more thrust or friction in
the brake drum known as leading or
primary shoe
Its direction is just opposite to the
rotation of the drum

Secondary shoe or Trailing


Brake Lining
Types of brake lining
1. Solid woven type
2. Moulded type

Solid Woven Type

It is a non-metallic lining
It is made up of asbestos spinned
Co-efficient of friction is .4 at 2500C
Maximum temperature 3500c

Moulded or Composition
The lining is made by the
composition of natural asbestos fibre
with bonding material
The mixture is pressed by using dies
at high temperature
The resisting temperature ranges
from 4000c to 4500c

Self-energizing or Servo action of


The force of rotating drum is fully

used to increase the break pressure
due to rotation of drum in a
counterclockwise direction
At the time vehicle is moving forward
In all modern hydraulic wheel breaks
of the drum type, a self-energizing or
servo feature is used on the rotating
to increase the brake pressure

Mechanical Brakes