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Presented By: harsh patel

Now-a-days we are using silicon for manufacturing of electronic chips. etc… By using carbon as manufacturing material.INTRODUCTION  Electronics with out silicon is unbelievable. such as bulk size. faster and stronger chips . we can achieve smaller. slow operating speeds. It has many disadvantages when it is used in power electronic applications. but it will come true with evolution of diamond or carbon chip.

What is Diamond chip?  Diamond chip is nothing but carbon chip. The major component using carbon is”CARBON NANOTUBE” . Carbon chip is an electronic chip manufactured on a diamond structural carbon wafer.

measuring several tens of microns in length and less than a few nanometres in diameter . They are made of one or several concentric walls in which carbon atoms are arranged in hexagonal pattern.size cylinder of carbon atoms.WHAT IS A CARBON NANOTUBE? Carbon nanotubes were discovered in 1991. It is a nano .

Carbon nano tube properties depend on how you roll the sheet.HOW NANOTECHNOLOGY WORKS? Imagine a sheet of carbon atoms. which would look like a sheet of hexagons. .  If you roll that sheet into a tube. you'd have a carbon nano tube.

.CARBON FEATURES…. frequency range and perhaps even superconductivity. Carbon--which sits just above silicon on the periodic table can surpass silicon’s abilities in thermal performance. Carbon will succeed silicon as the predominate semiconducting material for the integrated circuits of the future.

hollow spheres of carbon called fullerenes--could answer silicon's inability to attain high-temperature superconductivity .  zero-dimensional carbon-60-atom. One-dimensional carbon- 1nm-diameter nanotubes-could solve digital silicon's speed woes.  Nanotubes will appear first as printable "inks" that are 10 times faster than competing organic transistors.

This could ultimately mean faster.  Graphene also conducts electricity faster than most materials since electrons can travel through in straight lines between atoms without being scattered. and carbon nanotubes when rolled into a tube.can be made using sheets of carbon just one-tenth of a nanometre thick. more efficient electronic components that also require less power. research shows. a sheet of carbon atoms in a flat honeycomb arrangement.CARBON TRANSISTORS  Transistors less than one-quarter the size of the tiniest silicon ones and potentially more efficient . . Graphene makes graphite when stacked in layers.  The transistors are made of graphene.

The ripples extend about 1 nm up and down and are around 25 nm across. leaving graphene suspended across 500 nm gaps.  Acid was used to dissolve the silicon. . which keep the material stable.When placed a piece of graphene on top of silicon and positioned this over a metallic grate. A transmission electron microscope then revealed it is covered in tiny ripples. It's not flat at all.

Advantages  SMALLER COMPONENTS ARE POSSIBLE  As the size of the carbon atom is small compared with that of silicon atom. So if there is any heat dissipation inside the chip. But diamond chip can function well in these elevated temperatures. We can realize a transistor whose size is one in hundredth of silicon transistor. it is possible to etch very smaller lines through diamond structural carbon. . heat will very quickly transferred to the heat sink or other cooling mechanics. It can withstand higher temperatures compared with that of silicon. crystal structure of the silicon will collapse. At very high temperature.  Diamond is very good conductor of heat.  IT WORKS AT HIGHER TEMPERATURE  Diamond is very strongly bonded material.

FASTER THAN SILICON CHIP Carbon chip works faster than silicon chip. As the size of the silicon is higher than that of carbon. slow operating speed. Mobility of the electrons inside the doped diamond structural carbon is higher than that of in he silicon structure. We can connect high power circuit direct to the diamond chip . LARGER POWER HANDLING CAPACITY For power electronics application silicon is used. less efficiency. So carbon chip can work under high power environment. lower band gap etc at very high voltages silicon structure will collapse. so the chance of collision decreases. But the carbon atom size is small. Diamond has a strongly bonded crystal structure. but it has many disadvantages such as bulk in size.. the chance of collision of electrons with larger silicon atoms increases.

CONCLUSION Thus diamond chip replaces the need of silicon in every aspect in future generations .