CIupLer 1; PurL z

TIe EnIIgILenmenL
An exampIe of a French SaIon where debating societies argued the ideas
of the EnIightenment.
1 ÷ Montesquieu 2- Rousseau 3- Diderot 4-Madame Geoffin 5- Voltaire
hat is a hat is a
PhiIosophe? PhiIosophe?
PubIic inteIIectuaIs
who appIied reason
to the study of many
areas of Iearning,
including philosophy,
history, science,
politics, economics
and social issues.
'ideo 'ideo - - Importance of the EnIightenment Importance of the EnIightenment
#ene Descartes #ene Descartes
· Wrote "Discourse on
Method" Which was the
concept of mind and matter;
that reason is the chief source
of knowledge.
· Father of modern phiIosophy
· 'I think, therefore I am."
· "Because the mind can not be
doubted, but the physical world
can, the two must be radically
A tree faIIs in the woods. No one is there A tree faIIs in the woods. No one is there
to hear it. Does it make a sound? to hear it. Does it make a sound?
François-Marie Arouet
Born: 21 Nov 1694
Died: 30 May 1778
rote 20,000 Ietters and more than 2,000 books
reatest Figure of the Enlightenment
Wrote "Treatise on ToIeration":
"I do not agree with what you have to say, but.
I'll defend to the death your right to say it."
Path to the EnIightenment
· · The EnIightenment The EnIightenment was an 18
philosophical movement built on the
achievements of the Scientific
· Philosophers hoped to
make a better society by
applying the scientific
method and reason to
social problems.
· Discussed reason, natural law,
hope, and progress.
EnIightenment PhiIosophers EnIightenment PhiIosophers
"War in the Age of Enlightenment¨
Path to the EnIightenment (cont.)
· Enlightenment philosophers thought that
society was governed by natural laws just as
the Newtonian physical universe was.
· · John Locke: John Locke: He argued that people are
born with a mind that is a tabuIa rasa tabuIa rasa, or
blank slate, and that knowledge comes
to it through the 5 senses.
· This meant that the right influences could
create a new kind of society by creating
a new way of understanding.
#ousseau #ousseau
· · Jean Jean- -Jacques #ousseau Jacques #ousseau
wrote iscourse on the
Origins of the Inequality of
· Argued that people formed
governments and Iaws to protect
their private property, but the
government relationship enslaved
· #ousseau in 1762 wrote
"The SociaI Contract"
CriticaI Thinking
Discuss What did Rousseau mean
when he stated that if any individual
wants to pursue his own seIf-
interests at the expense of the
common good,
o you agree or disagree with Rousseau's ideas? Why?
Ch. 17 Ch. 17
The EnIightenment, The EnIightenment,
Part 3 Part 3
· · EnIightened AbsoIutism EnIightened AbsoIutism
· · Seven Years' ar Seven Years' ar
· · American #evoIution American #evoIution
EnIightenment and EnIightened AbsoIutism
· EnIightened absoIutism:
monarchs of this time tried to
govern by Enlightenment
principles while retaining royal
· Philosophes tried to influence
rulers to make enlightened
reforms: Prussia, Austria, and
Voltaire was a prominent
Enlightenment philosopher
who felt enlightened
monarchy was the only real
way for society to advance.
· Frederick William Ì tried to
maintain a highly efficient
bureaucracy, whose values were
obedience, honor, and service to
the king.
· Fredrick William Ì doubled the
army's size.
EnIightened AbsoIutism: Prussia
· Frederick iIIiam I and later is his son,
Frederick ÌÌ made Prussia a European
power in the 18th century.
The King acquired a
reputation for his fondness
for miIitary dispIay,
leading to his special efforts
to hire the taIIest men he
could find in all of Europe
for a special regiment
nicknamed the Potsdam
· He adopted some Enlightenment
· He aboIished torture, granted
Iimited freedom of speech,
Iimited freedom of
the press, and greater reIigious
EnIightened AbsoIutism: Prussia
· Frederick ÌÌ, or Frederick the
Great, was one of Europe's most
cultured kings.
arring Fredrick the Great arring Fredrick the Great
· Empress Maria Theresa, who
came to the throne in 1740,
centraIized the Austrian Empire
and strengthened the state's
· Her successor, Joseph II, was
more infIuenced by the
EnIightened AbsoIutism: Austria
· Austria was a major power
by the eighteenth century.
· He recognized equality
before the law and
enacted religious reforms,
including toleration.
· is program IargeIy
· Nobles were alienated
because of the serfs' being
· Serfs were confused about
the sudden changes.
EnIightened AbsoIutism: Austria
· Joseph ÌÌ abolished serfdom
and the death penalty.
· She knew the ideas of the
Enlightenment and even
invited Diderot to speak in
Russia, which he did.
EnIightened AbsoIutism: #ussia
· After several weak rulers following Peter
the Greats death, Catherine the Great,
the German wife of the murdered Peter
ÌÌÌ, came to the Russian throne.
· Ìn the end, Catherine did not
adopt EnIightenment
reforms because she
needed the support of the
Russian nobility.
· Most of these three governments did not institute
Enlightenment reforms.
· The decisions the rulers made were ultimately about
the well-being of their states and increasing the state's
EnIightenment and EnIightened AbsoIutism
· The theory of enlightened absolutism seems questionable.
Catherine was educated on enlightened reforms, yet
did not exercise them.
Joseph exercised reforms, yet they
did not have much success.
ar of the Austrian Succession
· Maria Theresa succeeded her father to the
Austrian throne after his death in 1740.
· The Prussian king took advantage of
having a woman on the throne and
invaded Austrian SiIesia.
· France allied with Prussia, and Britain
allied with Austria.
Maria Theresa of Austria
BattIe of ohenfriedeberg, Attack of Prussian Infantry, June 4th, 1745. Painting by Carl Röchling (1855-1920).
· The struggle between Britain and France
during this time outside of Europe was
known as the: Great ar for Empire
· Ìn 1763, the French withdrew
from Ìndia for good.
The Seven Years' ar
· By 1763, Britain was the
world's greatest colonial power.
Storming of the breach by Prussian troops during the BattIe of Leuthen, 1757
Seven Years' ar
Blue: Great Britain, Portugal Green: France, Spain
as it the First orld ar?
%he eath of eneral olfe (1771) by Benjamin est, depicting the BattIe of the PIains of Abraham (aIso
known as the BattIe of Quebec).
arships of the Seven Years ar
· A stalemate led to peace.
· Ìn 1763 Treaty of Paris: :
aII occupied territories
were returned and
Austria officiaIIy
recognized Prussia's
permanent controI of
The Seven Years' ar (cont.)
· The British soon scored a series of land victories in
the Great Lakes area and the Ohio River valley.
· The French made peace, and the 1763 Treaty of
Paris transferred Canada and all lands east of the
Mississippi to Britain.
· Spain, an ally of France, transferred Florida
to British control, and France gave
Spain its Louisiana territory.
The Seven Years' ar (cont.)
The BattIe of MonongaheIa, near present day Pittsburgh, PA
Americans Defeat the British Americans Defeat the British

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