You are on page 1of 29

EFFECT OF MINERALOGY ON

PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF
COMPRESSED STABILIZED EARTH
BLOCKS (CSEB)

Emeso B. Ojo MNSE

CSEB Research Group


NIGERIAN BUILDING & ROAD RESEARCH INSTITUTE

PRESENTATION OUTLINE
Introduction
Background
Objective
Scope
Research Methodology
Results and Discussion
Conclusion

INTRODUCTION

The provision of adequate housing has continued to be a


daunting task around the world.
Exponential growth of population
Low gross national product
Lack of purchasing power
Scarcity and/or high cost of conventional building materials

Providing adequate housing requires continuous research


and investment especially in appropriate technologies
Appropriate technologies

Use of locally available materials, methods or practices


Hence, reduce cost of construction and
Cost to the environment
Contributes to local economic development

WHAT ARE CSEBS?


Walling material
Basically earth + stabiliser that has been
compressed
Earth construction - old technology
Third of the worlds population has been reported
to live in earth houses

WHY USE CSEBS?


An appropriate technology
Locally available materials: lowers transportation
costs
Cheaper: ensure availability of affordable housing
for a wider population
Creates job opportunities
Possess very good insulation and thermal
properties
Higher energy efficiency compared to other
building materials

CSEBS.. ISSUES
Poor patronage in Nigeria
Earth construction still associated with poverty
in Nigeria
GIZ and GEMS2 2013 report

Scarce data on the properties of blocks


Difficulty with use
Dearth of skills
Unavailability of ready blocks
Aesthetics of the blocks.

LATERITES
Products of chemical weathering of igneous rocks in
hot and humid climates.
Properties of laterites would be greatly influenced by
their mineralogical composition which is a function of

he nature of parent material, the age of the land


surface, climate, topography and drainage conditions.
Because these factors vary from site to site within the
country, there is the need to document the
characteristics of laterites from different parts of the
country in order to produce guidelines for use of
laterites from various parts of the country.

OBJECTIVES
The main objective of this study is to investigate
the effect of mineralogy on the performance of
CSEBs
In order to achieve this, the following objectives
have been outlined:

Determination of index/engineering properties of samples


collected from various locations
Determination of engineering classification of these soils
Determination of mineralogical composition of soils
Determination of strength and durability of CSEBs

SCOPE OF WORK

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
The study was carried out in three phases:
Determination of geotechnical properties of
samples
Determination of mineralogical composition of
samples
Production and testing of blocks

Five

identified
burrow
SAMPLE COLLECTION
pits within
the F.C.T

GEOTECHNICAL PROPERTIES OF
SOILS
Natural moisture content
Particle density
Atterberg limits
Particle size distribution
Compaction

GEOTECHNICAL PROPERTIES OF
SOILS
Natural moisture content
Particle density
Atterberg limits
Particle size distribution
Compaction

An important index
Determines soil behaviour
and properties
Used for phase
relationships of air, water
and solids for a given
volume of soil
Was conducted using the
oven drying method in
accordance with BS 1377:
Part 2: 1990

GEOTECHNICAL PROPERTIES OF
SOILS
Natural moisture content
Particle density
Atterberg limits
Particle size distribution
Compaction

To determine ratio of mass


of a unit volume of soil to
the mass of the same
volume of water
Used for phase
relationships of air, water
and solids for a given
volume of soil
Used for determining
grain size distribution
using the sedimentation
method.
Was conducted using the
small pyknometer method
in accordance with BS
1377: Part 2: 1990

GEOTECHNICAL PROPERTIES OF
SOILS
Natural moisture content
Particle density
Atterberg limits
Particle size distribution
Compaction

To determine basic
measure of the critical
water contents of a finegrained.
Shrinkage limit
Plastic limit
Liquid limit
Used for soil classification
All tests were conducted in
accordance with BS 1377:
Part 2: 1990

GEOTECHNICAL PROPERTIES OF
SOILS
Natural moisture content
Particle density
Atterberg limits
Particle size distribution
Compaction

To determine the
percentage of different
grain sizes within a soil
Sieve analysis determines
the distribution of coarser
particles.
Sedimentation method is
used to determine the
distribution of finer
particles.
Combined wet sieving
produces a continuous psd
curve
Used for soil classification
Performed in accordance
with BS 1377: Part 2: 1990

GEOTECHNICAL PROPERTIES OF
SOILS
Natural moisture content
Particle density
Atterberg limits
Particle size distribution
Compaction

Is a process whereby soil


particles are packed more
closely together, thereby
increasing the dry density
The test is performed in
order to determine the
optimum moisture content
at which a particular soil
attains its highest dry
density
Light compaction was
conducted in accordance
with BS 1377: Part 2:
1990: 3.4

MINERALOGICAL COMPOSITION OF
SOILS
X-ray Powder Diffraction method
is a technique for identifying the atomic and molecular structure of
crystalline materials (salts, minerals, metals etc)
A sampleis mounted and gradually rotated while being bombarded with Xrays, producing a diffraction patternof regularly spaced spots known
asreflections.
By measuring the angles and intensities of these diffracted beams, a threedimensional picture of the density of electrons within the crystal. From this
electron density, the mean positions of the atoms in the crystal can be
determined, as well as theirchemical bonds and various other information
The two-dimensional images taken at different rotations are converted into a
three-dimensional model of the density of electrons within the crystal using
the mathematical method offourier transforms
Because the positions of the peaks in a powder pattern are determined by the
size, shape, and symmetry of the unit cell and the peak intensities are
determined by the arrangement of atoms within the cell, the powder pattern
is a characteristic fingerprint of a phase.
These experimental powder pattern is searched against the Powder
Diffraction database containing the patterns of > 700,000 pure compounds

PRODUCTION OF TEST PIECES


Test pieces were produced as specified in the Compressed Earth
Blocks: Manual of Production (Rigassi 1985)

TESTING OF PIECES

Drying of test pieces

60C over a 48hr period


Change in successive
weights > 0.1%

Determination of density
using the linear method
Determination of
compressive strength

Dry
Wet

Determination of water
absorption

Total immersion for 24hrs

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


Geotechnical Properties of Soils

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


Mineralogical Composition of Soils

SUITABILITY OF SOILS
100

Recommended
gradation
Gravels: 0-40%
Sands: 25-80%
Silts:10-25%
Clays: 8-30%

90
80
70
60
Percentage passing %

50
40
30
20

Gravel

Sand

Silt10
0

0.02

0.2

Particle size (mm)


KRD

BMB

ANA

GVL

KUJ

20

SUITABILITY OF SOILS
35

ARS 680:1996

30

25

20
Plasticity Index %
15

KRD
BMB
ANA
GVL

10

20

25

30

35
Liquid Limit %

40

45

50

55

PERFORMANCE OF CSEBS

Dry Compressive Strength


Games Village

Compressive Strength N/mm2

Cement Content %

Kuje

Kurunduma

Anagada

Bombo

PERFORMANCE OF CSEBS

Wet Compressive Strength


Games Village

Compressive Strength N/mm2

Cement Content %

Kuje

Kurunduma

Anagada

Bombo

PERFORMANCE OF CSEBS

Density typically
within the range
of 1500
2000kg/m3

Density
Games Village

Density

Cement Content %

Kuje

Kurunduma

Anagada

Bombo

PERFORMANCE OF CSEBS

Water Absorption
Games Village

Water Absorption %

Cement Content %

Kuje

Kurunduma

Anagada

Bombo

MINERAL COMPOSITION OF SOILS


31.4

Kuje

44.8

Kurunduma

20.9

42

Games Village

21.8

40.1

Bombo

48.2

Anagada
0%

16

10%

27.2

29.9

20%

30%

21.9

40%

34.3

32.7

50%

22.4

60%

13.8

70%

20.2

80%

Quartz, syn

Kaolinite

Microcline, ordered

Dickite-2M1

Illite-Montmorillonite

Greenalite-1T, sy

Tosudite

Illite-2M1 (NR

14.9

90%
Attapulgite

17.6

100%