Measures of dispersion

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Averages

Measures of dispersion

© All Rights Reserved

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Measures of Averages

KATHIRAVAN Gopalan

1

Measures of Center

a value at the

center or middle

of a data set

Definitions

Mean

(Arithmetic Mean)

AVERAGE

the number obtained by adding the values and dividing the total by the number

of values

Notation

data values

Notation

x is pronounced x-bar and denotes the mean of a set

of sample values

x

x =

n

Notation

x is pronounced x-bar and denotes the mean of a set

of sample values

x

x =

n

in a population

x

N

6

Definitions

Median

the middle value when the original data values are arranged in

order of

increasing (or decreasing) magnitude

Definitions

Median

the middle value when the original data values are arranged in

order of

increasing (or decreasing) magnitude

often denoted by x~

(pronounced x-tilde)

Definitions

Median

the middle value when the original data values are arranged in

order of

increasing (or decreasing) magnitude

often denoted by x~

(pronounced x-tilde)

6.72

3.46

3.60

6.44

3.46

3.60

6.44

6.72

no exact middle -- shared by two numbers

3.60 + 6.44

2

MEDIAN is 5.02

10

6.72

3.46

3.60

6.44

3.46

3.60

6.44

6.72

no exact middle -- shared by two numbers

3.60 + 6.44

MEDIAN is 5.02

6.72

3.46

3.60

6.44

26.70

3.46

3.60

6.44

6.72

26.70

(in order -

exact middle

MEDIAN is 6.44

11

Definitions

Mode

the score that occurs most frequently

Bimodal

Multimodal

No Mode

denoted by M

the only measure of central tendency that can be used with nominal data

12

Examples

a. 5 5 5 3 1 5 1 4 3 5

Mode is 5

b. 1 2 2 2 3 4 5 6 6 6 7 9

Bimodal -

c. 1 2 3 6 7 8 9 10

No Mode

2 and 6

13

Definitions

Midrange

the value midway between the highest and

lowest values in the original data set

14

Definitions

Midrange

the value midway between the highest and

lowest values in the original data set

Midrange =

2

15

Measures of Center

Carry one more decimal place than is

present in the original set of values

16

use class midpoint of classes for variable x

17

use class midpoint of classes for variable x

(f x)

x =

f

18

use class midpoint of classes for variable x

(f x)

x =

f

x = class midpoint

f = frequency

f=n

19

Weighted Mean

(w x)

x =

w

20

Advantages - Disadvantages

21

Definitions

Symmetric

Data is symmetric if the left half of its

histogram is roughly a mirror of its

right half.

Skewed

Data is skewed if it is not symmetric

and if it extends more to one side than

the other.

22

Skewness

Mode

Mean

Median

SYMMETRIC

23

Skewness

Mode

Mean

Median

SYMMETRIC

Mean

Mode

Median

SKEWED LEFT

(negatively)

24

Skewness

Mode

Mean

Median

SYMMETRIC

Mean

Mode

Median

SKEWED LEFT

(negatively)

Mean

Mode

Median

SKEWED RIGHT

(positively)

25

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