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The Alternative Paradigm of

Development

What is the alternative


paradigm?
An approach of development
communication that rejects
universal relevance of earlier
modernization models.
Focus on social and cultural
identities of nations and concept of
self reliance.

The background
Reaction to the modernization approach
based on dominant paradigm
Journey from the dominant to the
alternative approach interspersed by
dependency/Structuralist approach

Dependency/Structuralist
models
Evaluation of extension services indicated failure
Widened knowledge gaps
Some African, S.American countries changed to
one-crop cultures
Rural migration to urban areas
Dependence on other nations for advanced
technology
Dependency models came as a reaction to these
modernization concepts

Philosophy
Advocated by Baran and Frank
Concept of neo-imperialism (Baran)
Concept of metropolis-satellite (Frank)

Liberation theology
approach
Greater emphasis on spiritual
development of individual
Activism on behalf of poor and oppressed
Christian Liberation Theology a strong
example
Liberation in the Hindu tradition
(Swaraj, Satyagraha and Non-violence
espoused by the Mahatma)

Freires perspective
Based on liberation theology approach
The central purpose of development
communication should be liberation from
oppression.
Development communication therefore is
not a communication of messages but an
emancipatory dialogue that is carried out
in an atmosphere of love and humility.

Other dependency
approaches
Schumachers advocacy of appropriate
technologies (eg. Popular grassroot
movements like base Christian
Communities in L.America), sarvodya
Movement in Sri Lanka, Peoples theater
in India

Alternative Paradigm
Traverses from the concept of economic
development to overall human
development.
Emphasizes participatory approach
Stresses upon fulfillment of basic needs of
people
Theories of media effects

Transformation
Of socio economic and political structures
Agrarian reforms
Urban reforms
Economic reforms
Redistribution of wealth and means of
production
Redesigning political institutions
(decentralization, self-management, curbing
grip of bureaucracies)

The world inside


People centered development
Local rather than expert knowledge
Grassroots Movements
NGOs
Empowerment
Democratization
Human Rights
Development Ethics

Alternative paradigm
Focus on social and cultural identities of
nations
Need for self-reliance
Establishment of NIEO and NWICO
Egs. Include feminist movements,
ecological movements etc.

The crux and the climax


Human survival, a dynamic force
projecting a positive alternative to theory
of progress and goal of affluence
Global problems, local solutions