You are on page 1of 161

From LTE basics to 9155 LTE RF Design

September 2009

LTE Basics
OFDM Fundamentals

2 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

3 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Basic of OFDM

4 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Basic of OFDM
Waveform

5 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Basic of OFDM
Sending modulation symbol in parallel

6 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Basic of OFDM
Symbol extract

7 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Basic of OFDM

8 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Basic of OFDM
Orthogonality lost

9 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Basic of OFDM
Doppler & frequency offset effects

10 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Basic of OFDM
Multi-path effect

11 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Basic of OFDM
Multi-path effect

12 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Basic of OFDM
CP length

13 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Basic of OFDM
OFDM scalable

14 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Basic of OFDM
Full Tx/Rx chain

15 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

LTE Basics
DOWNLINK STRUCTURE

16 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

DL Physical Channels

17 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

DL Channels Mapping

18 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

LTE Downlink: Frame Format, Channel Structure &


Terminology

19 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

LTE Downlink: Number of Resource Blocks & Numerology

20 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Downlink common Reference Signal structure

Reference signal symbol distribution sequence over 12 subcarriers x 14 OFDM


symbols.
The Reference signal sequence is correlated to Cell ID.
21 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Downlink common Reference Signal structure per number of


antenna port

22 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

PBCH, SCH Time and frequency location

23 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Basic of cell search

24 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Primary BCH & Dynamic BCH

25 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Primary BCH & Dynamic BCH

26 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

PCFICH & PHICH

27 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

PDCCH

28 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

PDCCH: DCI formats carried


DCI includes resource assignments and other control information

29 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Downlink Shared Channel (DL-SCH)

30 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

DL Power settings
PDCCH

PBCH

Based o the simus done by R&D and also on first trials results the DL power
settings is detailed in the slides below

31 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

DL Power settings
LA 0.x

32 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

DL Power settings
LA 1.0 RRH 30W

33 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

DL Power settings
LA 1.0 RRH 40W

34 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

LTE Basics
UPLINK STRUCTURE

35 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

UL Physical Channels

36 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

UL Channels Mapping

37 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

SC-FDMA principle

38 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

SC-FDMA principle

39 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

SC-FDMA Tx/Rx chain

40 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

LTE Uplink: Number of Resource Blocks & Numerology

41 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Demodulation Reference Signal & Sounding Reference Signal

42 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Demodulation Reference Signal & Sounding Reference Signal

43 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

PUCCH

44 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

PUCCH

45 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

PUCCH

46 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

PRACH

47 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Radom Access procedures

48 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

LTE Basics
UL Power Control

49 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

IoT Control Mechanism (Inter-cell Power Control)


Setting of Target_SINR_dB determines the IoT operating point
Especially in a reuse-1 deployment, it is critical to manage the uplink interference level
In LTE, e-NBs can send uplink overload indications to neighbor e-NBs via the X2 interface
Power control parameters (i.e. Target SINR) can be adapted based on overload
indicators
Allows control of the IoT level to ensure coverage and system stability

Overload indicator
(X-2 interface)
PC params

PC params
Measure
Interference, emit
overload indicator

50 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

interference

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Based on overload
indicator from
neighbor cell,
adapt PC params

Fractional Power Control

While using the same target SINR for each user results in very
good fairness (as far as power allocation is concerned), it also
results in poor spectral efficiency
An improved power control scheme called Fractional Power
Control adjusts the target SINR in relation to the UEs path loss to
its serving sector
UE_TxPSD_dBm = x PL_dB + Nominal_Target_SINR_dB +
UL_Interference_dBm
is called the fractional compensation factor, and is sent via cell broadcast; 0 <
<1
Target_SINR_dB = Nominal_Target_SINR_dB
- (1-) x PL_dB
Target SINR increases with decreasing path loss
Flexible trade-off between cell edge rate and average
spectral efficiency
51 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Target
SINR

Improved Power Control Based on Neighbor Cell Path Loss

Path loss to the serving cell is not indicative of the amount of


interference a user will generate to neighboring sectors
An improved power control scheme adjusts the target SINR in
relation to PL_dB = PL_strongestNeighborCell_dB
PL_servingCell_dB
UE_TxPSD_dBm = PL_dB + Nominal_Target_SINR_dB + (1-) x PL_dB +
UL_Interference_dBm
(1-) x PL_dB is sent to each UE via higher layer (RRC) signaling

Target_SINR_dB = Nominal_Target_SINR_dB
+ (1-) x PL_dB

Target SINR increases with increasing radio


position

52 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Target SINR

LTE Basics
Scheduler

53 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Scheduler

54 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

UL Scheduling mechanism

55 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

DL Scheduling mechanism

56 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Channel Quality Indicator, Pre-coding Matrix Indicator, Rank


Indicator

57 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Scheduler weighted proportional fair

58 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Scheduler proportional fair principles

59 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Scheduler proportional fair principles

60 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Scheduler proportional fair principles

61 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Scheduler proportional fair principles

62 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Frequency Non-Selective Scheme

Single priority metric formed and used in


the first stage of the MPE algorithm
Then MPE algorithm continues as in FSS
scheme

The SRS SYNC SINR is a scalar quantity per user that is formed by averaging the SRS SINR across PRBs
and then filtered in time; used to form a single priority metric, which is replicated and used for all PRBs
To support a large number of UEs, the SRS period needs to be reduced given the multiplexing capabilities (max of 8
UEs per SRS transmission per frequency comb)

The regular MPE algorithm as in the FSS algorithm is then utilized, which minimizes testing/verification
to just the new code introduced
Currently also investigating an intermediate solution where the resolution of the frequency selective
scheduler is reduced by a certain factor in order to retain some frequency selectivenessin the
scheduling while reducing complexity (study in progress)

63 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Frequency Re-use strategies


Frequency re-use1

64 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

Fractional Frequency re-use

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Frequency Re-use strategies


Soft Frequency re-use or
dynamic frequency re-use

65 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

LTE Basics
Link adaptation

66 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

DL MCS table

67 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

UL MCS table

68 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

LTE Basics
Multi Antenna Technology Roadmap

69 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

MIMO Configuration

70 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Antennas Configuration

71 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Antennas Configuration

72 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Spatial Multiplexing

73 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

LA1.0 Scheme supported

74 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Scheme supported after LA1.0

75 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

LTE Link Budgets


Uplink Link Budget Considerations

Uplink Link Budget


Main Principles

Link Budget is performed for one mobile located at cell edge (for each service)
transmitting at max power
The IoT (Interference over Thermal Noise) experienced by this user on the UL
depends on the frequency reuse scheme and the service data rate and
corresponding SINR that is guaranteed for cell edge users

UPLINK Analysis is
an MAPL analysis

MAPL
Max UE transmit Power
Required Received Signal
cell radius

77 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Uplink Link Budget


Main Principles
UL link budget elaborated for user of service k at cell edge transmitting at maximum power

Uplink Path

Transmit
Power

UE Transmit
power
(23dBm)

Losses and
Margins

Feeder losses
Penetration Loss
(outdoor/indoor)
Shadowing Margin

Gains

eNode-B
Antenna Gain
UE Antenna
Gain

Receiver
Sensitivity

Derived from
SINR
performances

Handoff Gain
Body Loss

78 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Interference

Interference
Margin

= MAPL
Maximum
Allowable
Path Loss

Uplink Link Budget


Rationale Behind LKB Formulation
UL Rates
128kbps
256kbps
512kbps

RangeUL_Guar_Serv

Link budgets are formulated for one service that is to be guaranteed at cell edge
(RangeUL_Guar_Serv)
For more limiting service rates link budgets are formulated under the assumption
they are not guaranteed at cell edge but at a reduced coverage footprint

79 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Uplink Link Budget


Example for one service

Dense Urban (2.6GHz)


Required Data Rate
No. Resource Blocks Required
MCS
Used Bandwidth
Target C/I
eNode-B Noise Figure
eNode-B Sensitivity
Antenna Gain
Cable & Connector Losses
Body Losses
Additional UL Losses
Cell area coverage probability
Overall standard deviation
Shadowing Margin
Handoff Gain
Fast Fading Margin
Penetration Margin
Fixed IoT
UE Antenna Gain
UE Max Transmit Power
MAPL
UL Cell Range
80 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

PS 128
128 kbps
3 RB
MCS 8
540 kHz
-3.0 dB
2.5 dB
-117.2 dBm
18.0 dBi
0.5 dB
0 dB
0 dB
95%
8.0 dB
8.6 dB
3.6 dB
0 dB
21 dB
3.0 dB
0 dBi
23.0 dBm
128.7 dB
0.46 km

No. Resource Blocks to Reach Data


Rate
Optimal Modulation & Coding Scheme
(MCS)
Signal to Interference Ratio per
Resource Block
Noise Figure of the eNode-B is supplier
dependent
Based on SINR, Noise Figure, Thermal
Noise, Bandwidth Used

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Uplink Link Budget


Receiver Sensitivity

eNode-B Receiver Sensitivity


Minimum required signal level to reach a given quality (SINR target)
when facing only thermal noise

SensitivitydBm

= SINRdB + 10.log10(F.Nth.NRB.WRB)

Where:
F: eNode-B Noise figure in dB

Service
dependent

Nth: Thermal noise density, 10log(Nth) =-174 dBm/Hz


SINRdB: Signal to Interference ratio per Resource Block
NRB: Number of resource blocks (RB) required to reach a given data rate
WRB: Bandwidth of one Resource Block
One Resource Block is composed of 12 subcarriers, each of a 15kHz
bandwidth so W RB = 180kHz.\
81 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Uplink Link Budget


SINR Performances - Overview

SINR Target depends on:


eNode-B equipment performance
Radio conditions (multipath fading profile, mobile speed)
Receive diversity (2-way by default or optional 4-way)
Targeted data rate and quality of service
The Modulation and Coding Scheme (MCS)
Max allowed number of HARQ transmissions (Maximum of 4 on UL)
HARQ Operating Point 1% Post HARQ BLER target considered by default
Derived from link level simulations or better by equipment measurements (lab or
on-field measurements)

82 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Uplink Link Budget


SINR Performances - Channel Model

In reality, a mix of multipath conditions exist across a typical cell


For coverage assessment, the worst case model should be considered
ITU VehA multipath channel model are considered a good compromise
For LTE some evolved multipath channel models have been defined such as
EVA5Hz or EPA5Hz
These are an extension of the VehA and PedA models used in UMTS to make
them more suitable for the wider bandwidths encountered with LTE, e.g. >5MHz
Main difference lies in the definition of a Doppler frequency instead of a speed,
making the model useable for different frequency bands
All SINR performances used in the link budget are for all EVehA3 and EVehA50
channel models

83 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Uplink Link Budget


SINR Performances - Link Level Results for 10MHz Bandwidth (50 RB)

84 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Uplink Link Budget


SINR Performances - Selection of Optimal SINR Figures

There are a number of possible solutions that can be used to provide a given
throughput solutions comprise a combination of:
Modulation & Coding Scheme (MCS)
Number of Resource Blocks (RB)
Optimization Objective:
Select # RBs and MCS so as to maximize the receiver sensitivity and thus the
link budget
While at the same time respecting the selected HARQ operating point (1% post
HARQ BLER objective)

85 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Uplink Link Budget


SINR Performances - Summary for UL 10MHz Bandwidth (1x2 RxDiv)

Performance figures for typical UL link budget rates


Number of RBs
SINR (include margins)
MCS, TBS and # HARQ Transmissions
Service

VoIP

PS 64

PS 128

PS 256

PS 384

PS 512

PS 768

Bit Rate

12.2

64

128

256

384

512

768

1000

2000

MCS

10

10

10

10

10

10

TBS

328

176

392

872

1384

1736

2792

3496

6968

QPSK

QPSK

QPSK

QPSK

QPSK

QPSK

QPSK

QPSK

QPSK

Post HARQ BLER

1%

1%

1%

1%

1%

1%

1%

1%

1%

Required # of RB

10

16

20

40

-3.6 dB

-3.0 dB

-2.4 dB

-2.9 dB

-3.1 dB

-3.4 dB

-2.9 dB

-3.3 dB

Modulation

SINR (EVehA 3km/h) -3.7 dB

PS 1000 PS 2000

Rx Sensitivity -123 dBm -120 dBm -117 dBm -114 dBm -113 dBm -112 dBm -110 dBm -109 dBm -106 dBm

86 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Uplink Link Budget


SINR Peformances - MCS and TBS Tables

Some Background Info


Modulation & Coding Scheme (MCS)
This determines the Modulation Order which in turn determines the TBS Index

Number of Resource Blocks


For a given MCS the Transport Block Size (TBS) is given different numbers of resource
blocks
TBS Table

MCS Table
NPRB
MCS Index,
IMCS

Modulation
Order, QM

TBS Index,
ITBS

0
1
2
3

QPSK
QPSK
QPSK
QPSK
QPSK

0
1
2
3
4

87 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

ITBS
0
1
2
3
4
5
6

1
16
24
32
40
56
72
328
104

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

2
32
56
72
104
120
144
176
224

3
56
88
144
176
208
224
256
328

4
88
144
176
208
256
328
392
472

120
176
208
256
328
424
504
584

Uplink Link Budget


Implementation Margins

SINR performances from link level simulations assume ideal scheduling and link
adaptation reality will not be as good
For example in the downlink, we consider: Error free CQI feedback, Perfect PDCCH-PCFICH
decoding, CQI feedback rate 1/20ms, etc.

To account for such ideal assumptions there are currently two key elements to the
margins incorporated into in SINR performances used in UL budgets today:
Implementation margin to account for the assumptions implicit in the link level
simulations used to derive the SINR performances
Currently considered to be ~1dB
No variability is assumed for different environments or UE mobility conditions
Will be tuned based on SINR measurements (not yet performed)

ACK/NACK margin to account for the puncturing of ACK/NACK onto the PUSCH
A 1dB margin is applied for VoIP services and 0.5dB for higher data throughputs

88 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Uplink Link Budget


Consideration of Explicit Diversity Gains

The SINR performance figures considered by Alcatel-Lucent in UL and DL link


budgets are based on link level simulations that already account for the
corresponding transmit and receive diversity gains, i.e.
UL: default 1x2 Rx Diversity
2RxDiv gain accounted for in the SINR figures
To account for 4RxDiv on the UL an additional 2-3dB gain is considered on the 2RxDiv
SINR figures

DL: default 2x2 Tx Diversity


SFBC pre-coding gains + 2RxDiv gain at the UE are accounted for in the SINR figures
Note that an additional power combining gain is considered at the transmit side, i.e.
for a 2 x 40W TxDiv configuration a 80W transmit power is applied in DL link budgets

89 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

INTERNAL NOTE Noise Figure


The Noise Figure of the eNode-B is supplier dependent
Typically the Noise Figures of e-NodeBs range between 2 to 3dB
Typical RRH Noise Figures for ALU product (June 2009)

RRH Type
RRH2x (lower 700)
900
MC-TRX (1800)
MC-RRH (1800)
AWS
RRH2x (2600)
TRDU (2600)

90 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

Typical Noise Figure


2.2dB
TBD - 2.5dB (assumed)
3 dB
2.5 dB
TBD 2.5dB (assumed)
2.6 dB
2.6 dB

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Uplink Link Budget


Exercise

Compute eNode-B sensitivity in VehA 3km/h


for VoIP 12.2kbps @ 1% Post-HARQ BLER
For PS 384kbps @ 1% Post-HARQ BLER

Alcatel-Lucent equipment:
Typical eNode-B Noise Figure: 2.5dB
SINR figures: -3.7 dB for VoIP 12.2, -3.3dB for PS384

ANSWER: Sensitivity: -122.6 dBm for speech, -113.2 dBm for PS384

91 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Uplink Link Budget


Example for one service

Dense Urban (2.6GHz)


Required Data Rate
No. Resource Blocks Required
MCS
Used Bandwidth
Target C/I
eNode-B Noise Figure
eNode-B Sensitivity
Antenna Gain
Cable & Connector Losses
Body Losses
Additional UL Losses
Cell area coverage probability
Overall standard deviation
Shadowing Margin
Handoff Gain
Fast Fading Margin
Penetration Margin
Fixed IoT
UE Antenna Gain
UE Max Transmit Power
MAPL
UL Cell Range
92 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

PS 128
128 kbps
3 RB
MCS 8
540 kHz
-3.0 dB
2.5 dB
-117.2 dBm
18.0 dBi
0.5 dB
0 dB
0 dB
95%
8.0 dB
8.6 dB
3.6 dB
0 dB
21 dB
3.0 dB
0 dBi
23.0 dBm
128.7 dB
0.46 km

Typical gain of Tri-sectored antenna,


depends on frequency band
Depends on feeder type, length and
frequency band
3dB body loss when speech usage (UE near
head), 0dB body loss when data usage

0dBi by default
Depends on UE Power Class

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Uplink Link Budget


UE Characteristics

LTE UE Max Transmit Power


Depends on the power class of the UE
Only one power class is defined in 3GPP TS 36.101: 23dBm output power is considered
with a 0 dBi antenna gain; 2dB tolerance in the standard
WCDMA UE Max Transmit Power
Multiple power classes were defined in 3GPP TS 25.101, the most prevalent WCDMA UEs
today are considered to be class 3 (24dBm +1/-3dB)
The corresponding tolerance ranges for both WCDMA and LTE terminals are in fact the
same:
4dB range 21-25dBm
While the nominal Tx powers differ by 1dB
Currently consider 23dBm in UL LTE link budgets

93 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Uplink Link Budget


Example for one service

Dense Urban (2.6GHz)


Required Data Rate
No. Resource Blocks Required
MCS
Used Bandwidth
Target C/I
eNode-B Noise Figure
eNode-B Sensitivity
Antenna Gain
Cable & Connector Losses
Body Losses
Additional UL Losses
Cell area coverage probability
Overall standard deviation
Shadowing Margin
Handoff Gain
Fast Fading Margin
Penetration Margin
Fixed IoT
UE Antenna Gain
UE Max Transmit Power
MAPL
UL Cell Range
94 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

PS 128
128 kbps
3 RB
MCS 8
540 kHz
-3.0 dB
2.5 dB
-117.2 dBm
18.0 dBi
0.5 dB
0 dB
0 dB
95%
8.0 dB
8.6 dB
3.6 dB
0 dB
21 dB
3.0 dB
0 dBi
23.0 dBm
128.7 dB
0.46 km

Shadowing margin due to shadowing


standard deviation
Handoff gain
Depends on depth of coverage (e.g. deep
indoor, indoor daylight, outdoor). Also
accounts for the indoor shadowing margin

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Uplink Link Budget


Shadowing Margin

Shadowing Margin:
Slow fading signal level variations due to obstacles
Modelled (in dB) as a Gaussian variable with zero-mean and standard deviation
depending on the environment, typically 6 to 8dB
The shadowing standard deviation can include the variability associated with the
indoor penetration. However, it is recommended to consider this as part of the
penetration margin
Impact on link budget :
Take a margin to ensure the received signal is well received (above required
sensitivity) with a given probability
Typically 95% in Dense Urban, Urban and Suburban and 90% in Rural
Computation as for UMTS and CDMA.

95 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Uplink Link Budget


Handoff Gain
Unlike UMTS/WCDMA or CDMA, there is no soft-handoff functionality for LTE
No soft-handoff gain considered for LTE

Far too pessimistic to only consider the shadowing margin computed with one cell unless
considering an isolated cell
A mobile at the cell edge can still handover to a neighbor cell with more favorable
shadowing, i.e. a lower path loss consider a Handoff Gain (or best server selection
gain)
Reference article: Analysis of fade margins for soft and hard handoffs, Rege, K.M.;
Nanda, S.; Weaver, C.F.; Peng, W.-C., PIMRC 95
INTERNAL NOTE: This hard handoff gain can be considered for any system without soft handoff. So
this is the case for GSM. However no gain is typically applied in GSM. For LTE the sampling frequency
for handoff decisions as well as the handoff speed itself is much faster than GSM this leads to an
LTE handoff gain not much less than that considered for WCDMA.

96 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Uplink Link Budget


Handoff Gain - Example
Antenna Height

30 m

K2 Propagation Model

35.2

Shadowing Correlation

0.5

Hysteresis

2 dB

HO sampling time
# of samples to decide HO

20 msec
4 samples

Correlation distance

50 m

Cell Range

100%

Typical for Suburban


Incar & Rural

Typical for Dense Urban,


Urban and Suburban Indoor

Shadowing Standard Deviation

6 dB

6 dB

7 dB

7 dB

8 dB

8 dB

10 dB

10 dB

Cell Area Coverage Probability

90%

95%

90%

95%

90%

95%

90%

95%

Cell Edge Coverage Probability

71%

84%

73%

85%

75%

86%

78%

88%

Handoff Hysteresis

2 dB

2 dB

2 dB

2 dB

2 dB

2 dB

2 dB

2 dB

Shadowing Margin (no SHO gain)

3.3 dB

5.9 dB

4.3 dB

7.2 dB

5.4 dB

8.7 dB

7.7 dB

11.7 dB

SHO Gain

2.7 dB

2.8 dB

3.1 dB

3.4 dB

3.6 dB

3.9 dB

4.7 dB

5.0 dB

3 km/h - HHO Gain

2.3 dB

2.5 dB

2.8 dB

3.1 dB

3.4 dB

3.6 dB

4.4 dB

4.8 dB

50 km/h - HHO Gain

2.1 dB

2.2 dB

2.6 dB

2.8 dB

3.1 dB

3.3 dB

4.1 dB

4.4 dB

100 km/h - HHO Gain

2.0 dB

2.0 dB

2.4 dB

2.6 dB

2.8 dB

3.0 dB

3.7 dB

4.0 dB

Reference article: Analysis of fade margins for soft and hard handoffs, Rege,
K.M.; Nanda, S.; Weaver, C.F.; Peng, W.-C., PIMRC 95
97 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Uplink Link Budget


Handoff Gain - Example

Note that the full Handoff Gain is only applicable for UEs located at the cell
edge where we consider one rate guaranteed at the cell edge and others
guaranteed within that coverage footprint, the other services will not take
benefit of the full handoff gain

128kbps 256kbps 512kbps

UL Rates

Dense Urban, Sigma = 8dB, 95% coverage reliability, 3km/h mobility


98 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Uplink Link Budget


Penetration Margin

The penetration losses characterize the level of indoor coverage targeted by the
operator (deep indoor, indoor daylight, window, incar, outdoor, etc)
Highly dependent on the wall materials and number of walls/windows to be
penetrated
It is recommended to consider the penetration margin as a single worst case
margin as the shadowing standard deviation doesnt include the indoor
penetration variability
Typical Penetration Losses at 2GHz
Environment

Penetration Margin (dB)

Dense Urban Deep Indoor

20

Urban - Indoor

17

Suburban - Indoor

14

Rural Incar

99 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

INTERNAL NOTE Penetration Losses


For 700/850/900MHz, lower penetration losses can be considered
Note that the frequency dependency of the penetration losses is very materialdependent
Typically, we can assume 2dB lower penetration margins compared to those at
2GHz
For 2.6GHz, higher penetration losses could be considered
Note that the frequency dependency of the penetration losses is very materialdependent
Typically, we can assume 2dB higher penetration margins compared to those at
2GHz

100 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Uplink Link Budget


Example for one service

Dense Urban (2.6GHz)


Required Data Rate
No. Resource Blocks Required
MCS
Used Bandwidth
Target C/I
eNode-B Noise Figure
eNode-B Sensitivity
Antenna Gain
Cable & Connector Losses
Body Losses
Additional UL Losses
Cell area coverage probability
Overall standard deviation
Shadowing Margin
Handoff Gain
Fast Fading Margin
Penetration Margin
Fixed IoT
UE Antenna Gain
UE Max Transmit Power
MAPL
UL Cell Range
101 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

PS 128
128 kbps
3 RB
MCS 8
540 kHz
-3.0 dB
2.5 dB
-117.2 dBm
18.0 dBi
0.5 dB
0 dB
0 dB
95%
8.0 dB
8.6 dB
3.6 dB
0 dB
21 dB
3.0 dB
0 dBi
23.0 dBm
128.7 dB
0.46 km

This sensitivity is calculated for noise only.


A margin must be considered for the
interference above noise: Interference
Margin

Interference Margin or IoT

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Uplink Link Budget


Interference Margin

Sensitivity figures typical consider only thermal noise, the real interference, I j,
must also be considered (not only the thermal noise)

Received Power, C jdBm Sensitivity dBm InterferenceMargindB


InterferenceMargindB

Ij

10log

Nth W

Interference margin or IoT (Interference over Thermal Noise)


A reuse of 1 is typical (option to use schemes such as soft fractional reuse or
interference coordination)
The IoT operating point can be set to achieve a minimum data rate at cell edge
and/or to match incumbent technology coverage

102 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Uplink Link Budget


WCDMA Noise Rise - Whats Different Between LTE and WCDMA?

By definition, Cell Load and Total Interference rise (Noise Rise) are linked:

itot_ dB 10 log total 10 log 1 xUL


N oW

Differences with LTE


Interference from adjacent cells only
for LTE (no intracell interference)
Max WCDMA cell load is dependent
on power control stability
No concept of cell load for LTE

Noise Rise (dB)

where Itotal is the total received power at the node B (including the useful
signal)
30
25
20
15

50% cell load


3dB Noise Rise

10
5
0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

Cell Load (%)

103 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

80

90

100

LTE IoT
What Determines the IoT for LTE?

The average IoT is dependent upon the targeted cell edge data rate (SINR)
The higher the cell edge SINR target, the higher the average IoT
Ultimately there is a point at which the increased IoT can not be sustained
with the corresponding SINR
Based on system level simulations:

104 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

LTE IoT
What Determines the IoT for LTE?

For LTE the IoT can be expressed as:


IoT = 1 / (1 - RBLoad x FAvg x TSINR)
Where
RBLoad = Average % loading of the resource blocks of adjacent cells
Under full loading this can be considered to be 100%

FAvg = The average ratio between extracell interference and useful signal
received at the eNode-B
Based on system level simulations the typical value of FAvg for UL fractional power
control is ~0.8 this is quite comparable to that used for WCDMA

TSINR = SINR target at the cell edge

105 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

LTE IoT
The IoT for Targeted LTE Cell Edge Rates?

IoT for 100% RB Loading Ranges from 2-3dB for fractional


power control consider 3dB by default in LTE Link Budget
106 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Uplink Link Budget


What Determines the IoT for LTE?

The average IoT is dependent upon the targeted cell edge data rate (SINR)
The higher the cell edge SINR target, the higher the average IoT
Based on system level
simulations:
Omni and Directional UE
antennas
SINRs resulting in an IoT
> 5-6dB is not considered
reasonable
Realistic Cell Edge SINR
Operating Range

107 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Uplink Link Budget


Overall MAPL & Cell Range

Overall MAPL for a given service:

MAPL jdB PMaxTX dBm TxgaindB Txloss dB RxgaindB Rxloss dB Bodyloss dB


Penetratio ndB Sensitivity dBm InterferenceMargindB
ShadowingMargindB HOGaindB
Transmit Power

Max UE transmit Power


Maximum Allowable
Pathloss

Losses
and Margins
Gains

Interference margin
extra cell interference

Gains - Losses- Margins


Reference Sensitivity

cell radius

Reference
Sensitivity
Interference
= MAPL

108 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Uplink Link Budget

MAPL dB Min

Example for Multiple Services

Dense Urban (2.6GHz)

VoIP

MAPL K
jdB

K 2log R cell

PS 64

PS 128

PS 256

PS 384

PS 512

PS 768

PS 1000

PS 2000

64 kbps

128 kbps

256 kbps

384 kbps

512 kbps

768 kbps

1000 kbps

2000 kbps

1 RB

2 RB

3 RB

5 RB

8 RB

10 RB

16 RB

20 RB

40 RB

MCS 6

MCS 6

MCS 8

MCS 10

MCS 10

MCS 10

MCS 10

MCS 10

MCS 10

Used Bandwidth

180 kHz

360 kHz

540 kHz

900 kHz

1440 kHz

1800 kHz

2880 kHz

3600 kHz

7200 kHz

Target C/I

-3.7 dB

-3.6 dB

-3.0 dB

-2.4 dB

-2.9 dB

-3.1 dB

-3.4 dB

-2.9 dB

-3.3 dB

eNode-B Noise Figure

2.5 dB

2.5 dB

2.5 dB

2.5 dB

2.5 dB

2.5 dB

2.5 dB

2.5 dB

2.5 dB

Required Data Rate 12.2 kbps


No. Resource Blocks Required
MCS

eNode-B Sensitivity -122.7 dBm -119.6 dBm -117.2 dBm -114.4 dBm -112.9 dBm -112.1 dBm -110.3 dBm -108.8 dBm -106.2 dBm
Antenna Gain

18.0 dBi

18.0 dBi

18.0 dBi

18.0 dBi

18.0 dBi

18.0 dBi

18.0 dBi

18.0 dBi

18.0 dBi

0.5 dB

0.5 dB

0.5 dB

0.5 dB

0.5 dB

0.5 dB

0.5 dB

0.5 dB

0.5 dB

Body Losses

3 dB

0 dB

0 dB

0 dB

0 dB

0 dB

0 dB

0 dB

0 dB

Additional UL Losses

0 dB

0 dB

0 dB

0 dB

0 dB

0 dB

0 dB

0 dB

0 dB

Cell area coverage probability

95%

95%

95%

95%

95%

95%

95%

95%

95%

Overall standard deviation

8.0 dB

8.0 dB

8.0 dB

8.0 dB

8.0 dB

8.0 dB

8.0 dB

8.0 dB

8.0 dB

Shadowing Margin

8.6 dB

8.6 dB

8.6 dB

8.6 dB

8.6 dB

8.6 dB

8.6 dB

8.6 dB

8.6 dB

Handoff Gain

3.6 dB

3.6 dB

3.6 dB

3.0 dB

2.4 dB

2.0 dB

1.5 dB

1.1 dB

0.5 dB

Fast Fading Margin

0 dB

0 dB

0 dB

0 dB

0 dB

0 dB

0 dB

0 dB

0 dB

Penetration Margin

21 dB

21 dB

21 dB

21 dB

21 dB

21 dB

21 dB

21 dB

21 dB

Fixed IoT

3.0 dB

3.0 dB

3.0 dB

3.0 dB

3.0 dB

3.0 dB

3.0 dB

3.0 dB

3.0 dB

0 dBi

0 dBi

0 dBi

0 dBi

0 dBi

0 dBi

0 dBi

0 dBi

0 dBi

23 dBm

23 dBm

23 dBm

23 dBm

23 dBm

23 dBm

23 dBm

23 dBm

23 dBm

131.1 dB

128.7 dB

125.3 dB

123.1 dB

122.0 dB

119.7 dB

117.8 dB

114.5 dB

0.53 km

0.46 km

0.37 km

0.32 km

0.30 km

0.25 km

0.23 km

0.18 km

Cable & Connector Losses

UE Antenna Gain
UE Max Transmit Power

MAPL 131.2 dB
UL Cell Range

109 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

0.53 km

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Uplink Link Budget


Fractional Power Control Handling in LKB (4/4)

Respecting the SINR slope (dictated by the fractional power control parameters)
means for services requiring very high SINR values that:
Substantial reductions in allowable UE transmit power are required
The corresponding impact on the link budget is substantial

110 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Uplink Link Budget


Propagation Models

For 700, 850 or 900 MHz - Okumura-Hata:


K1 = 69.55 + 26.16 x log10(FMHz) - 13.82 x log10(Hb) - a(Hm) + Kc
a(Hm) = (1.1 x log10(FMHz) - 0.7) x Hm - (1.56 x log10(FMHz) - 0.8) medium-sized city

K2 = 44.9 -6.55*log10(Hb)
For AWS, 1.9GHz or 2.1GHz - COST-231 Hata:
K1 = 46.3 + 33.9 x log10(FMHz) - 13.82 x log10(Hb) - a(Hm) + Kc
K2 = 44.9 - 6.55 x log10(Hb)
For 2.6GHz - modified COST-231 Hata:

as COST-231 Hata is limited to 1.5GHz to 2GHz

Based on measurements at higher frequencies (2.5GHz & 3.5GHz):


K1 = 46.3 + 33.9 x log10(2000) + 20 x log10(FMHz/2000) - 13.82 x log10(Hb) - a(Hm) + Kc
K2 = 44.9 - 6.55 x log10(Hb)

111 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Uplink Link Budget


Impact of TMA (1/3)

Tower Mounted Amplifier (TMA) also called


Mast Head Amplifier (MHA)

Antenna
Vertical
Polarisation

Jumper
Cable

Impact on link budget

Dual TMA

Slightly Reduce the global Noise


Figure
Compensate the cable losses

Duplexer
LNA
Duplexer

0.4dB DL insertion losses

Duplexer

Feeder

LNA
Duplexer

Jumper
Cable

TX / RX

Usage recommended for UL


coverage-limited scenarios

eNode-B

112 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

TXdiv / RXdiv

Tower Mounted Amplifier


Impact of TMA (2/3)

Friis formula to compute the overall


noise figure of the receiver chain
with TMA:

noverall n TMA
nelement

nfeeder 1 nNode B 1

g TMA
g TMA g feeder

NFelement
10 10

With

g element

Gelement
10 10

and

Where NFfeeder =-Gfeeder =Feeder


Losses
Typical TMA characteristics:
NFTMA =2 dB

GTMA =12 dB

DL Insertion losses = 0.4dB

113 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

Typical gain on uplink link budget


(Macro site):
2.9dB gain for sites with 3dB cable
losses
3.7 dB gain for sites with 4dB cable
losses
Typical gain on uplink link budget (RRH
site):
0.3dB gain for sites with 0.6dB cable
losses
Note: TMA should not be considered
for RRH sites

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Tower Mounted Amplifier


Impact of TMA (3/3)

Dense Urban (2.6GHz)


Required Data Rate
No. Resource Blocks Required
MCS
Used Bandwidth
Target C/I
eNode-B Noise Figure
eNode-B Sensitivity
Antenna Gain
Cable & Connector Losses
Body Losses
Additional UL Losses
Cell area coverage probability
Overall standard deviation
Shadowing Margin
Handoff Gain
Fast Fading Margin
Penetration Margin
Fixed IoT
UE Antenna Gain
UE Max Transmit Power
MAPL
UL Cell Range
114 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

PS 128 (no TMA)

PS 128 (TMA)

128 kbps
3 RB
MCS 8
540 kHz
-3.0 dB
2.5 dB
-117.2 dBm
18.0 dBi
3.0 dB
0 dB
0 dB
95%
8.0 dB
8.6 dB
3.6 dB
0 dB
21 dB
3.0 dB
0 dBi
23.0 dBm
126.2 dB
0.39 km

128 kbps
3 RB
MCS 8
540 kHz
-3.0 dB
2.4 dB
-117.3 dBm
18.0 dBi
0.2 dB
0 dB
0 dB
95%
8.0 dB
8.6 dB
3.6 dB
0 dB
21 dB
3.0 dB
0 dBi
23.0 dBm
129.1 dB
0.47 km

Reduced Noise figure


(based on Friis formula)
No cable losses but 0.2dB
jumper losses

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Around 2.9dB gain on MAPL for


sites with 3dB cable losses

Common & Control Channel Considerations


Overview

There are two main common and control channel considerations that should be
assessed for an LTE network design to ensure that they will not limit the
coverage. These include:
INTERNAL NOTE Attach Procedure
ACK/NACK Transmission
Either punctured onto the Physical Uplink Shared Channel (PUSCH)
Or over the Physical Uplink Control Channel (PUCCH)

115 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

INTERNAL NOTE Common & Control Channel Considerations


Attach Procedure

This is the procedure that the UE must go through to Attach to an LTE network

Limiting
Message

116 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

INTERNAL NOTE Common & Control Channel Considerations


Attach Procedure

From a link budget perspective the limiting message from messages 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,


15 and 16 (that involve the air interface) must be considered to assess any link
budget constraints

117 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

INTERNAL NOTE Common & Control Channel Considerations


Attach Procedure

Message 3 (RRC Connection Request)


1 resource block with QPSK rate 1/3 providing an average effective data rate
of 20.8 kbps (after 5 HARQ transmissions)
SINR requirement = 0.7dB
(including margins)
UL link budget
Dense Urban
2.6GHz band

Attach LKB Can be Limiting


Depending on Cell Edge Rate
Target

118 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Common & Control Channel Considerations


ACK/NACK Transmission

DL transmission requires a steady stream of ACK transmissions over the UL to


acknowledge the DL packets
Correct ACK reception is
critical for optimizing the DL
efficiency
ALU punctures ACK over the
PUSCH initially and over the
PUCCH in the longer term
ACK/NACK Transmission:
1 RB, QPSK, SINR -3.4dB
(PUSCH) & -4.2dB (PUCCH)
UL LKB for Urban, 2.6GHz band
ACK Is Never Foreseen to Limit UL Coverage
119 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

LTE Link Budgets


Downlink Link Budget Considerations

120 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Downlink Link Budget


Rationale Behind Downlink LKB Formulation (1/3)

1. DL Cell range defined by UL cell edge service link budget


2. DL throughputs computed for coverage probabilities associated with each
corresponding UL service
3. Geometry distribution used for determining the cell edge throughput

121 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Downlink Link Budget


Rationale Behind Downlink LKB Formulation (2/3)
UL Rates
128kbps (3RB) - guaranteed at cell edge
256kbps (5RB)
512kbps (10RB)

RangeUL_Guar_Serv

8623kbps (50RB)
3921kbps (50RB)
1323kbps (50RB)
DL Rates

The above example illustrates the detailed DL Link Budget on the subsequent slides
Urban morphology, indoor 0dBi omni UE configuration, cell range fixed for UL 128kbps, 100%
adjacent cell DL RB Loading, No TMA
Note: The diagram is not to scale and doesnt include all rates
122 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Downlink Link Budget


Rationale Behind Downlink LKB Formulation (3/3)

Uniform power per RB is assumed on the DL


DL performances extracted from link level simulations
The optimal MCS is selected for given number of RB to maximize throughput while
ensuring a 20% initial BLER

Only TxDiv is assumed for referenced DL link level simulations


As the DL link budget is focusing on cell edge performances it is considered that the
rank and geometry are insufficient to justify Spatial Multiplexing (SM)
Where a relatively low rate is guaranteed on the UL at cell edge, e.g. 512kbps) the
relative UL cell ranges for the high UL rates will be very small and thus the
corresponding DL SINRs will be relatively high due to the reduced coverage reliability
in such cases there is some justification for consideration SM performances (not yet
incorporated here)

123 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Downlink Budget
Example: 10MHz BW
Dense Urban (2.6GHz)
No. Resource Blocks
Used Bandwidth
UE Noise Figure
eNode-B Antenna Gain
Cable & Connector Losses
Body Loss
Penetration Margin
Limiting UL Cell Range
# DL Tx Paths
Total DL eNode-B Tx Power / Path
% DL Power for PDSCH
Max eNode-B Tx Power / Service
UE Antenna Gain
Adjacent Cell Loading
UL Service Cell Range
DL Path Loss @ UL Cell Edge
Total DL Losses @ UL Cell Edge
DL Cell Area Coverage Probability
Geometry at UL Service Cell Range
Desired Signal
Adjacent Cell Signal
Noise
Cell Edge SINR
Optimal MCS
Data Rate at UL Service Cell Edge
124 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

PS 128

PS 256

50 RB
9000 kHz
7 dB
18 dBi
0.5 dB
0 dB
21 dB
0.46 km
2 paths
30 W
80%
46.8 dBm
0 dBi
100%
0.46 km
129.1 dB
150.6 dB
95%
-4.9 dB
-85.8 dBm
-80.9 dBm
-97.5 dBm
-5.0 dB
MCS 2
1323 kbps

50 RB
9000 kHz
7 dB
18 dBi
0.5 dB
0 dB
21 dB
0.46 km
2 paths
30 W
80%
46.8 dBm
0 dBi
100%
0.37 km
125.7 dB
147.2 dB
61%
-0.1 dB
-82.3 dBm
-82.2 dBm
-97.5 dBm
-0.2 dB
MCS 7
3921 kbps

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Equivalent UL Service

Cell Range for Limiting UL


Service (128kbps)

Cell Range for Equivalent


UL Service (256kbps)

Coverage Probability for


DL service
95% x (0.36)2 / (0.46)2

Downlink Budget
Example: 10MHz BW
Dense Urban (2.6GHz)
No. Resource Blocks
Used Bandwidth
UE Noise Figure
eNode-B Antenna Gain
Cable & Connector Losses
Body Loss
Penetration Margin
Limiting UL Cell Range
# DL Tx Paths
Total DL eNode-B Tx Power / Path
% DL Power for PDSCH
Max eNode-B Tx Power / Service
UE Antenna Gain
Adjacent Cell Loading
UL Service Cell Range
DL Path Loss @ UL Cell Edge
Total DL Losses @ UL Cell Edge
DL Cell Area Coverage Probability
Geometry at UL Service Cell Range
Desired Signal
Adjacent Cell Signal
Noise
Cell Edge SINR
Optimal MCS
Data Rate at UL Service Cell Edge
125 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

PS 128

PS 256

50 RB
9000 kHz
7 dB
18 dBi
0.5 dB
0 dB
21 dB
0.46 km
2 paths
30 W
80%
46.8 dBm
0 dBi
100%
0.46 km
129.1 dB
150.6 dB
95%
-4.9 dB
-85.8 dBm
-80.9 dBm
-97.5 dBm
-5.0 dB
MCS 2
1323 kbps

50 RB
9000 kHz
7 dB
18 dBi
0.5 dB
0 dB
21 dB
0.46 km
2 paths
30 W
80%
46.8 dBm
0 dBi
100%
0.37 km
125.7 dB
147.2 dB
61%
-0.1 dB
-82.3 dBm
-82.2 dBm
-97.5 dBm
-0.2 dB
MCS 7
3921 kbps

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

% of total DL power
dedicated to PDSCH

Geometry at the corresponding


UL service range

The cell edge SINR

Downlink Budget
DL Power Settings

Depending on the OAM power offset settings for the Resource Elements (RE) of
different channel types we can compute the Average PDSCH Power / OFDM
Symbol
Example below for 10MHz, 2 x 40W PA Power
Average % power / symbol allocated to PDSCH REs 32.1 / 40 = 80.2%

126 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Downlink Budget
Geometry & SINR (1/2)
Geometry distributions from system simulations

Geometry

A range of UE configurations, both


omni and, directional UEs (fixed wireless)
Examples in LKB are for coverage
reliabilities of 95% and 61%

Adjacent Site

Geometry Distributions (Different UE Configs)

61% Coverage Reliability

95% Coverage Reliability

Geometry
-3.9dB
127 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

Rx Power
All

Yield Geometries of -3.9 & 4.7dB


respectively

An additional 1dB is
subtracted from
these geometry
values to align with
field expectations

Rx PowerServing Site

Geometry
4.7dB

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Downlink Budget
Geometry & SINR (2/2)

PDSCH SINR for a defined cell range and coverage reliability:


PDSCHSINR = PDSCHRx / [ PDSCHRx Geometry + Thermal Noise]
Where:
PDSCHRx = PowerPDSCH Total DL Losses
PowerPDSCH = PowerMax PA x Power FractionPDSCH x RBService / RBMax
Power FractionPDSCH is the average fraction of the total power allocated to
PDSCH Resource Elements (REs) per symbol across all RBs

Thermal Noise = 10 x log10( F x Nth x NRB x WRB )

F: eNode-B Noise figure in dB


Nth: Thermal noise density, 10log(Nth) =-174 dBm/Hz
NRB: Number of resource blocks (RB) required to reach a given data rate
WRB: Bandwidth of one Resource Block

128 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Downlink Budget
Example: 10MHz BW
Dense Urban (2.6GHz)
No. Resource Blocks
Used Bandwidth
UE Noise Figure
eNode-B Antenna Gain
Cable & Connector Losses
Body Loss
Penetration Margin
Limiting UL Cell Range
# DL Tx Paths
Total DL eNode-B Tx Power / Path
% DL Power for PDSCH
Max eNode-B Tx Power / Service
UE Antenna Gain
Adjacent Cell Loading
UL Service Cell Range
DL Path Loss @ UL Cell Edge
Total DL Losses @ UL Cell Edge
DL Cell Area Coverage Probability
Geometry at UL Service Cell Range
Desired Signal
Adjacent Cell Signal
Noise
Cell Edge SINR
Optimal MCS
Data Rate at UL Service Cell Edge
129 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

PS 128

PS 256

50 RB
9000 kHz
7 dB
18 dBi
0.5 dB
0 dB
21 dB
0.46 km
2 paths
30 W
80%
46.8 dBm
0 dBi
100%
0.46 km
129.1 dB
150.6 dB
95%
-4.9 dB
-85.8 dBm
-80.9 dBm
-97.5 dBm
-5.0 dB
MCS 2
1323 kbps

50 RB
9000 kHz
7 dB
18 dBi
0.5 dB
0 dB
21 dB
0.46 km
2 paths
30 W
80%
46.8 dBm
0 dBi
100%
0.37 km
125.7 dB
147.2 dB
61%
-0.1 dB
-82.3 dBm
-82.2 dBm
-97.5 dBm
-0.2 dB
MCS 7
3921 kbps

Max # RB for the bandwidth is


assumed by default

The optimal MCS for the


#RB and SINR
Corresponding L1 Throughput for
#RB, MCS and SINR

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Downlink Link Budget


SINR Performances - Overview

Like the UL the DL SINR Performances depends on:


eNode-B equipment performance
Radio conditions (multipath fading profile, mobile speed)
Receive diversity (2-way by default or optional 4-way)
Targeted data rate and quality of service
The Modulation and Coding Scheme (MCS)
Max allowed number of HARQ transmissions
HARQ Operating Point 20% BLER for 1st HARQ Transmission considered by
default
Derived from link level simulations
Note: Currently the Link Level Simulations referenced in the DL LKB
are for EVehA3km/h, 2x2 TxDiv
130 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Downlink Link Budget


SINR - Selection of Optimal SINR Figures

Based on a set of link level simulation results:


Full range of MCS values
Full range of # RBs

Example for Downlink


50RB, 10MHz
Bandwidth (2x2 MIMO)

131 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Downlink Link Budget


Downlink Performance Analysis (1/3)

Downlink Link Level Results for:


25 RB, MCS 28, TxDiv and 5MHz Bandwidth

19.4dB SINR

12Mbps Throughput

20% BLER

132 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Downlink Link Budget


Downlink Performance Analysis (2/3)

Downlink Link Level Results for:


25 RB, 1-28 MCS, TxDiv and 5MHz Bandwidth
-5dB cell edge SINR

-5dB Cell Edge SINR Target


660 kbps Tput
MCS 1

133 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Downlink Link Budget


Downlink Performance Analysis (3/3)

Downlink Link Level Results for:


1 to 25 RB, All MCS, TxDiv and 5MHz Bandwidth
-5dB cell edge SINR

134 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Downlink Budget
Example: 10MHz BW (Multiple Services)
Dense Urban (2.6GHz)
No. Resource Blocks
Used Bandwidth
UE Noise Figure
eNode-B Antenna Gain
Cable & Connector Losses
Body Loss
Penetration Margin
Limiting UL Cell Range
# DL Tx Paths
Total DL eNode-B Tx Power / Path
% DL Power for PDSCH
Max eNode-B Tx Power / Service
UE Antenna Gain
Adjacent Cell Loading
UL Service Cell Range
DL Path Loss @ UL Cell Edge
Total DL Losses @ UL Cell Edge
DL Cell Area Coverage Probability
Geometry at UL Service Cell Range
Desired Signal
Adjacent Cell Signal
Noise
Cell Edge SINR
Optimal MCS
Data Rate at UL Service Cell Edge
135 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

PS 128

PS 256

PS 512

50 RB
9000 kHz
7 dB
18 dBi
0.5 dB
0 dB
21 dB
0.46 km
2 paths
30 W
80%
46.8 dBm
0 dBi
100%
0.46 km
129.1 dB
150.6 dB
95%
-4.9 dB
-85.8 dBm
-80.9 dBm
-97.5 dBm
-5.0 dB
MCS 2
1323 kbps

50 RB
9000 kHz
7 dB
18 dBi
0.5 dB
0 dB
21 dB
0.46 km
2 paths
30 W
80%
46.8 dBm
0 dBi
100%
0.37 km
125.7 dB
147.2 dB
61%
-0.1 dB
-82.3 dBm
-82.2 dBm
-97.5 dBm
-0.2 dB
MCS 7
3921 kbps

50 RB
9000 kHz
7 dB
18 dBi
0.5 dB
0 dB
21 dB
0.46 km
2 paths
30 W
80%
46.8 dBm
0 dBi
100%
0.30 km
122.4 dB
143.9 dB
40%
3.3 dB
-79.1 dBm
-82.4 dBm
-97.5 dBm
3.2 dB
MCS 10
8623 kbps

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Downlink Link Budget


Summary
The downlink link budgets presented here are indicative of what rates are achievable within
the corresponding UL service coverage areas
LTE coverage is not considered to be limited by the DL for typical eNode-B output
powers and deployment scenarios with a 23dBm UE output power, link budgets should
remain uplink limited

It is important to understand that:


DL cell edge performances are strongly dependent upon scheduler parameters (e.g. tuning
of the fairness of the proportional fair scheduler algorithm) or the available bandwidth
(e.g. 10MHz vs 5MHz)
DL performances in the link budget are based only on long term average PDSCH SINR values
and do not account for dynamic channel variations that can be addressed with frequency
selective scheduling functionalities

Better estimates of DL performances can be achieved by means of:


System level simulations and/or Radio Network Planning (RNP) analysis

136 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Downlink Link Budget


Required DL Output Power ?

A series of system simulation studies were performed to assess the required


Power Amplifier (PA) sizing for 3 different important cases
700 MHz (10 MHz), 2.1 GHz (10 MHz), 2.1 GHz/AWS (5 MHz) and 2.6 GHz (20
MHz)
All scenarios considered 2x2 MIMO on the DL and 2RxDiv on the UL
In principle, all studies concluded the following:
Spectrum efficiency for reasonable cell sizes is relatively invariant to
reasonable choices for PA sizes
Edge rates become much more sensitive to the choice of power at large cell
radiuses

137 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Downlink Link Budget


Downlink PA Sizing for LTE Conclusions

Recommendations
from study
(independent of
frequency)

138 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

Carrier Bandwidths

PA Power

1.4 MHz

2 x 10 W

3.0 MHz

2 x 10 W

5.0 MHz

2 x 20 W

10.0 MHz

2 x 30 W

15.0 MHz

2 x 40 W

20.0 MHz

2 x 40 W

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

RF Design

139 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

LTE eNode-B Dimensioning


Key Issues to be considered

Coverage

Cell edge coverage expectations + depth of coverage


Target operating frequency band + propagation assumptions
Overlay versus Greenfield deployment
Antenna system sharing requirements (impact on coverage +
optimization constraints)
Radio features, e.g. TMA, RRH, ICIC

Capacity

Subscriber usage profile


Subscriber forecast
Spectrum constraints
Peak throughput requirements
Radio features, e.g. ICIC
140 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Rollout Phase
Site Field Positioning Principles

Based on Site Count (from RF dimensioning process)


Sites positioned to satisfy
RS coverage target (from LB for a target area reliability)
Capacity requirement

Placed either manually or utilizing Automatic Cell Planning (ACP) tools

Site Sharing Approach:


The first and quickest approach without RNP is to overlay existing sites with LTE
A 1:1 mapping is most appropriate where the overlaid network is at a
frequency band close to LTE band

Site overlay optimized with the aid of RNP predictions with an accurate propagation
model
Sites can be added or deleted where there is limited or excess coverage,
respectively
Analysis performed at the same time as antenna azimuth optimization (see
next slide)

141 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Rollout Phase
RF Optimization Criteria

Azimuth optimization and tilt optimization are the main rules to optimize the
network in order to have the best radio environment before implementing any
features.

The aim are


Optimize coverage in order to reach RSRP targets
To reduce the number of servers covering the same area in order to avoid excessive
overlapping.
This minimize interference without impacting coverage, improve SINR so
network performances like
Throughput
Capacity
Frequency re-use efficiency

142 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Rollout Phase
RSRP target

RS-RSSI: total power transmitted dedicated for Reference signal during one
OFDM symbol duration
Currently in Atoll it is more RS-RSSI is calculated, and the total power
dedicated to RS is 1/6 of Max power. This approach is not 100% of the time in
line wit power settings on the field
LA0.x for a 30W PA power energy per RE for RS is 14.9 dBm. Considering 10MHz
bandwidth 100 RE are used to calculate RS-RSSI, so total power dedicated to RS over
one OFDM symbol is 34.9dBm, but Atoll calculates 30W/6, so 37dBm, so to do the right
calculation for this configuration max power set in Atoll should be 43dBm instead of
45dBm.

143 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Rollout Phase
RSRP target
LA1.0 for RRH 30W PA power energy per RE for RS is 16.2 dBm. Considering 10MHz
bandwidth 100 RE are used to calculate RS-RSSI, so total power dedicated to RS over
one OFDM symbol is 36.2dBm, but Atoll calculates 30W/6, so 37dBm, so to do the right
calculation for this configuration max power set in Atoll should be 44dBm instead of
45dBm.
LA1.0 for TRDU 40W PA power energy per RE for RS is 18.2 dBm. Considering 10MHz
bandwidth 100 RE are used to calculate RS-RSSI, so total power dedicated to RS over
one OFDM symbol is 38.2dBm, Atoll calculates 40W/6, so 38dBm, so it is ok

3GPP RSRP definition:


Reference signal received power (RSRP), is determined for a considered cell as the
linear average over the power contributions (in [W]) of the resource elements that
carry cell-specific reference signals within the considered measurement frequency
bandwidth.

144 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Rollout Phase
RF Optimization Criteria
Outdoor RSRP target depending on environment and frequencies for UL PS 128 service and UL PS 256, considering 45dBm PA power and 14.9 dBm Reference signal Tx power per RE. RSRP value does not depends on the number of transmit
DL RS EIRP per RE and per transmit:
30.9dBm @ 2600MHz/2100MHz/AWS/1900MHz/1800MHz with 18dBi antenna gain & 2dB cable losses
30.9dBm @ 900MHz/850MHz with 17dBi antenna gain & 1dB cable losses
28.9dBm @700MHz with 15dBi antenna gain & 1 dB cable losses

145 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Rollout Phase
RF Optimization Criteria

Currently the calculation done in 9155 is the sum of all Reference signal
resource elements power transmitted in a same OFDM time period over all
the bandwidth. This approach is not in line with 3GPP as 3GPP specify the
linear average of reference signal resource elements.
To compensate this error the following work around must be followed and
based on the same analysis done for RS-RSSI calculation
LA0.x for RRH 30W PA power energy per RE for RS is 14.9 dBm.
For 5MHz bandwidth set in Cell table Max power column:
eNode-B PA power -19dB
For 10MHz bandwidth set in Cell table Max power column:
eNode-B PA power -22dB
For 20MHz bandwidth set in Cell table Max power column:
eNode-B PA power -25dB

146 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Rollout Phase
RF Optimization Criteria
LA1.0 for RRH 30W PA power energy per RE for RS is 16.2 dBm.
For 5MHz bandwidth set in Cell table Max power column:
eNode-B PA power -18dB
For 10MHz bandwidth set in Cell table Max power column:
eNode-B PA power -21dB
For 20MHz bandwidth set in Cell table Max power column:
eNode-B PA power -24dB

LA1.0 for TRDU 40W PA power energy per RE for RS is 18.2 dBm.
For 5MHz bandwidth set in Cell table Max power column:
eNode-B PA power -17dB
For 10MHz bandwidth set in Cell table Max power column:
eNode-B PA power -20dB
For 20MHz bandwidth set in Cell table Max power column:
eNode-B PA power -23dB

147 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Rollout Phase
RF Optimization Criteria
The method proposed is to:
Set indoor penetration losses in 9155 clutter table
Use the UL Link Budget Available Path loss with 0dB penetration losses set in the LB for the
dimensioning service selected,

Design RSRP = RS per RE EIRP+ ANT_GAIN Available Uplink Pathloss indoor losses
where:
RS per RE EIRP = Reference signal EIRP per resource element , it is automatically
calculated by 9155 when the work around specified above is followed
ANT_GAIN = Node-B antenna gain
Available Uplink Pathloss: UL available pathloss calculated with the link budget when
penetration loss is set to 0dB

The RSRP target values specified in slide , have been defined with this approach.
If the user apply this approach, the following recommendation must be respected
Select indoor loss icon in 9155 coverage study Do not select shadowing taken into
account icon as it is already done in RSRP target calculated below

148 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

RF optimization criteria
Overlapping optimization
The following rules are not technology specifics, and their efficiency have already been
measured on GSM, W-CDMA networks.
Pollution and interference analysis
Within 4dB of the best server
number of servers should 4
% area with 4 servers should be < 2%.
% of area with 2 servers should be < 30%.
Within 10dB of the best server
number of servers should 7
% of area with 7 servers should be < 2%.
High signal level overlap analysis:
Increase the design threshold for the covered area by 10dB
% of 3 servers in the design area should not exceed 10%..
Example: if the RS design threshold is -85dBm, a number of servers
analysis is done with a threshold equal to -75dBm.

149 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

RF optimization criteria
SINR target
This target can be used with 9155 RNP tool, but it is not 100% sure that it can be
measured on the field with high accuracy as it is not 3GPP measurement criteria.
In 9155 SINR can be calculated based on reference signal, or PDSCH, and for loaded
cases it provides the same results as power per RE RS= power per RE PDSCH
The SINR target value depends on the traffic load:
95% of the design area should have SINR -5dB, with 100% DL load
95% of the design area should have a SINR -2dB with 50% DL load

SINR does not depends on number of transmits

150 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

RF optimization criteria
RSRQ target
RSRQ= N*RSRP/RSSI where RSSI is all the power received in the N resource blocks used
bandwidth during the same time period where RSRP is measured.
RSRQ depends on the number of transit, as RSSI value depends on it, and not RSRP
RSRQ target value depends on the traffic load:
1 transmit :
95% of the design area should have RSRQ -17dB, with 100% DL load
95% of the design area should have RSRQ -14dB, with 50% DL load

2 transmits :
95% of the design area should have RSRQ -20dB, with 100% DL load
95% of the design area should have RSRQ -17dB, with 50% DL load

4 transmits :
95% of the design area should have RSRQ -23dB, with 100% DL load
95% of the design area should have RSRQ -20dB, with 50% DL load

151 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

RF optimization criteria
These targets are been obtained on several well known environments ; where a
very good optimization has been done in W-CDMA due to critical inter-site
distance : 400m. Same RNP environment has been re-used for LTE predictions
without changing anything to evaluate the best SINR & RSRQ reachable in
different full traffic load condition.
The RNP prediction and RF optimization done for the different trials in US and
Europe confirm that these targets can be reach and are a good way to optimize
throughput and reduce interferences.
Overlapping criteria, RSRQ target and SINR target defined above are in line to
provide the same RF design. They allow managing interferences in order to
obtain a RF network design able to support the best throughput .
10Mbps in cell center for mono-user when all surrounded cells have 100% load
1.5Mbps at cell edge in mono-user for 10MHz bandwidth when all surrounded cells have
100% load

152 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

RF optimization criteria
Neighbors & Cell ID planning criteria
Cell id is required to identify each cell, a cell id is the combination of one of the 3
sequences supported by P-SCH and the group Id supported by S-SCH.
So Realizing a cell id planning = realizing P-SCH planning and S-SCH planning
The strategy recommended is to use the same S-CH per site which induces
that each sector uses a different P-SCH sequence

This distance depends on propagation path loss, the environment and the frequency.
The main criteria are the following one:
Considering two cells cell A and cell B, on the same frequency carrier using the same
cell ID, the distance between those must satisfy the following criterias:
RSRP criteria
At cell A edge (RSRPcellA -115dBm) : RSRPcellA : RSRPcellB + 10dB
At cell B edge (RSRPcellB -115dBm): RSRPcellB : RSRPcellA + 10dB
RSRQ criteria for 100% load case ( 2 transmits)
At cell A edge (RSRQcellA -20dB) : RSRQcellA : RSRQcellB + 10dB
At cell B edge (RSRQcellB -20dB): RSRQcellB : RSRQcellA + 10dB

153 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

RF optimization criteria
Distance criteria
Dense urban/ urban

2km @ 2600MHz considering 600m cell radius


2,4km @ 1800MHz and 2100MHz considering 700m cell radius
5,5km @ 850MHz and 900MHz considering 1,7km cell radius
6Km @ 700MHz considering 1,9km cell radius

Suburban

6km @ 2600MHz considering 1,8km cell radius


7km @ 1800MHz and 2100MHz considering 2,2km cell radius
18km @ 850MHz and 900MHz considering 5,5km cell radius
20Km @ 700MHz considering 6km cell radius

17km @ 2600MHz considering 6km cell radius


21km @ 1800MHz and 2100MHz considering 7km cell radius
60km @ 850MHz and 900MHz considering 18km cell radius
65Km @ 700MHz considering 20km cell radius

Rural

154 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

www.alcatel-lucent.com
www.alcatel-lucent.com

155 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Hard Handover

156 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Hard Handover

157 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Hard Handover
Preparation Phase

158 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Hard Handover
Execution Phase

159 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Hard Handover
Completion phase

160 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX

Hard Handover
Execution time

161 | Presentation Title | Month 2008

All Rights Reserved Alcatel-Lucent 2008, XXXXX