CHAPTER SIX

LEARNING AND BEHAVIOUR MODIFICATION

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LEARNING DEFINITION

Robbins: Learning is any relatively permanent change in behaviour that occurs as a result of experience

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THEORIES OF LEARNING

1. 2. 3. 4.

CLASSICAL CONDITIONING OPERANT CONDITIONING CONGNITIVE LEARNING SOCIAL LEARNING

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1. CLASSICAL CONDITIONING

A type of conditioning in which an individual responds to some stimulus that would not ordinarily produce such a response. Pavlov’s experiment with dogs S R
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2. OPERANT CONDITIONING

A type of conditioning in which desired voluntary behaviour leads to a reward or prevents a punishment. Skinner’s experiment with piegons S R

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3.COGNITIVE LEARNING

Is learning by deliberate thinking about the problem or situation both intuitively and based upon known facts and responding in an objective and goal oriented manner. Tolman’s experiment with rats.
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4. SOCIAL LEARNING

People can learn through observation and direct experience This theory integrates cognitive and operant approaches to learning Bandura- role of modeling or vicarious learning
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PRINCIPLE OF REINFORCEMENT
Reinforcement is the process by which certain type of behaviour is strengthened.

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BASIC REINFORCEMENT STRATEGY
1. 2. 3. 4.

Positive reinforcement Negative reinforcement Punishment Extinction

Encourage desirable behaviour Discourage undesirable behaviour

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SCHEDULES OF REINFORCEMENT
The speed with which learning takes place and also how lasting its effects will be determined by the timing of reinforcement.

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REINFORCEMENT SCHEDULE

Continuous : a desired behaviour is reinforced each and every time it is demonstrated. Partial : a desired behaviour is reinforced often enough to make the behaviour worth repeating but not every time it is demonstrated.

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REINFORCEMENT INTERVAL SCHEDULE

Fixed interval- rewards are spaced at uniform time schedules Variable intervalrewards are distributed in time so that reinforcements are unpredictable

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REINFORCEMENT-RATIO SCHEDULE

Fixed Ratiorewards are initiated after a fixed or constant responses. Variable ratio- rewards vary relative to the behaviour of the individual.

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OB MODIFICATION
1. 2. 3. 4.

5.

Identify critical behaviour Develop base line data Identify behavioural consequences Develop and implement intervention strategy Evaluate performance improvements
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LIMITATIONS OF BEHAVIOURAL MODICFICATION 1. Individual differences PROGRAMME

2. Assuming extrinsic rewards are key factors 3. Ignoring work group norms 4. Inability to reinforce unobservable behaviour 5. Reinforce effect tends to wear off
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CONCLUSION

Learning - Reinforcement For Self Management

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