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Size shape and

motion

Earth size

EARTH SIZE
Earth
Earth is
is largest
largest of
of
the
the terrestrial
terrestrial
planets.
planets. its
its volume
volume
is
is also
also is
is also
also the
the
largest.
largest.
Chemically
Chemically ,, Earth
Earth is
is
composed
composed of
of 34.6%
34.6%
Iron,
Iron, 29.5
29.5 %
%
Oxygen,
Oxygen, 15.2%
15.2%
Silicon,
Silicon, 12.7%
12.7%
Magnesium,
Magnesium, 2.4%
2.4%
Nickel,
Nickel, 1.9
1.9 Sulfur
Sulfur
and
and 0.05%
0.05% Titanium
Titanium

EARTH SHAPE
Earth
Earth shape
shape is
is not
not really
really
aa perfect
perfect sphere.
sphere. ItIt has
has
bulges
bulges in
in the
the center
center or
or
around
around the
the equator.
equator. This
This
bulging
bulging effect
effect is
is due
due to
to
the
the rotation
rotation of
of the
the earth,
earth,
and
and with
with this
this bulge
bulge the
the
Earth
Earth is
is described
described as
as
having
having aa shape
shape of
of oblate
oblate
spheroid
spheroid

Motion of the earth

The
The equatorial
equatorial bulge
bulge at
at at
at Earths
Earths Equator
Equator
is
at
and
is measured
measured
at 26.5
26.5 miles
miles
and caused
caused
by
The
equatorial
bulge
at by
the
the Earths
Earths rotation
rotation and
and gravity.
gravity.
at
Earths
Equator
is
According
to
Tiller
(2005)
there
are
According to Tiller (2005) there are three
three
motion
of
measured
at
26.5 miles
motion that
that are
are independent
independent
of motion
motion of
of
the
Sun
and
the
galaxy
the
Sun
and
the
and caused bygalaxy
the

Earths rotation and


1.
revolution
around
the
1. AA yearly
yearly
revolution
around
the
gravity
sun
sun

axis
axis

2.
2. AA daily
daily rotation
rotation on
on its
its axis
axis
3.
3. AA slow
slow clockwise
clockwise wobble
wobble of
of its
its


Precession

Precession

Revolution

Revolution

Rotation

Rotation

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Earth has three different


kinds of motion:

Rotation
> is the movement of
the earth as it rotates
from west to east on its
axis . Earths rotation
appears to rise from the
east moves to west.

Earths rotation can be


measured in two ways:
1. Near solar day it is the time interval
from one noon to the next noon day
because its the time when the sun has
reached its highest point in the sky
2. Sidereal day it is the time which
takes the earth to make one complete
rotation with respect to a star other than
the sun. The earth rotates 360 degree in
24 hours or 15 degree per hour

Revolution
> Revolution is one
complete orbit of the Earth to
the Sun, in about 365.25 days.
The direction of revolution is
counter clockwise as viewed
down from the north

Earth orbit can be classified


in two ways:
1.

2.

Perihelion It is the point in which the


earth is closer to the sun, and It is the
time where the earth moves fastest this
usually happens during summer
season.
Aphelion It is the point in which the
earth is farthest to the sun, and it is the
time where the earth moves slowest,
this usually happens during rainy
season.

Precession
> is the reaction of earth to the gravitational pull of the
moon and the sun on its equatorial bulge, however, the
results in a slow wobbling of the earth as it turns on its
axis.
Precessionis a change in theorientationof the rotational
axis of arotatingbody. In an appropriate
reference frameit can be defined as a change in the
firstEuler angle, whereas the third Euler angle defines
therotation itself. In other words, the axis of rotation of
a precessing body itself rotates around another axis. A
motion in which the second Euler angle changes is
callednutation. Inphysics, there are two types of
precession:torque-free and torque-induced.