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Highway Construction

Flexible Pavement

Presentation Contents

Unpaved Roads
Paved Roads
Shoulders
Horizontal Alignment,
Surface Regularity of Pavement
Asphalt
Porous Asphalt
Stone Mastic Asphalt
Gap Graded Asphalt

Unpaved Road
---

1. Definition
A level of horizontal surface which is made from native
materials of the land surface.

Unpaved Road

--1.1 Types of Unpaved Road

Unpaved
Road
Gravel
Roads

Earth
Tracks

Earth
Roads

1.1.1 Earth Tracks

--Definition

Are the simplest (Low Volume Roads) and generally consist of parallel rust,
separated by vegetation delineating a rural access rout.
These Tracks are not Engineered
Impassable during or after wet weather condition.
Carries less than five vehicles per day.

1.1.2 Earth Roads


--Definition

Are classified as those which no-imported gravel is used.


The in-situ material is cleared of vegetation and lightly compacted.
Periodic maintenance should be applied.

1.1.3 Gravel Roads


--Definition

Have a designed layer of imported materials.


Typically constructed to a specific standard.
Provide all weather surfaces.
Vertical and horizontal alignment is based on a specific standard.
Regular maintenance is carried out.

Paved Road
---

1. Definition
The Durable surface material, laid down on an area intended
to sustain vehacular or traffic.

Paved Road in Romania

Paved Road

--1.1. Type of Paved Roads

1.1.1. Unbound Roads


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Wearing
Wearing
Tack-Coat
Tack-Coat
Binder
Binder

Aggregate
Aggregate Fine
Fine &
& Course,
Course, Mineral
Mineral Filler,
Filler, Bituminous
Bituminous material
material

Prime-Coat
Prime-Coat

Rapid-setting,
Rapid-setting, Cationic
Cationic bitumen,
bitumen, Grade
Grade RS-1K
RS-1K
Aggregate
Aggregate Fine
Fine &
& Course,
Course, Mineral
Mineral Filler,
Filler, Bituminous
Bituminous material
material

Surfacing
RoadBase
Sub-Base
Drainage

Cut-back
Cut-back Bitumen
Bitumen of
of the
the grade
grade MC-70
MC-70

1.
1. Crushed
Crushed Aggregate
Aggregate (Crushed
(Crushed Rock
Rock &
& gravel,
gravel, Hard,
Hard, Clean
Clean Durable)
Durable)
2.
Wet
mixed
Road-base
(Crushed
Rock
&
gravel,
Hard,
Clean
2. Wet mixed Road-base (Crushed Rock & gravel, Hard, Clean Durable)
Durable)

Sand, gravel & crushed aggregate


Free from organic matter
Well graded
Course and Fine Aggregate, Crushed hard rock,
Free from sand and dust
Well graded

1.1.2. Bound Roads


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Wearing
Wearing
Tack-Coat
Tack-Coat
Binder
Binder

Aggregate
Aggregate Fine
Fine &
& Course,
Course, Mineral
Mineral Filler,
Filler, Bituminous
Bituminous material
material

Prime-Coat
Prime-Coat

Rapid-setting,
Rapid-setting, Cationic
Cationic bitumen,
bitumen, Grade
Grade RS-1K
RS-1K
Aggregate
Aggregate Fine
Fine &
& Course,
Course, Mineral
Mineral Filler,
Filler, Bituminous
Bituminous material
material

Surfacing
RoadBase
Sub-Base
Drainage

Cut-back
Cut-back Bitumen
Bitumen of
of the
the grade
grade MC-70
MC-70
1.
1.

Bituminous
Bituminous Road
Road Base
Base (Aggregate
(Aggregate Fine
Fine &
& Course,
Course, Mineral
Mineral Filler,
Filler, Bituminous
Bituminous
material
)
material )
2.
2. Cement
Cement Treated
Treated Base
Base (Water,
(Water, Cement
Cement &
& Aggregate)
Aggregate)

Sand, gravel & crushed aggregate


Free from organic matter
Well graded
Course and Fine Aggregate, Crushed hard rock,
Free from sand and dust
Well graded

Bound and Unbound Road


--2. Usage And Comparison
Bound

Unbound

High Traffic Flow

Low Traffic Flow

Costly

Economical

Shoulders
--Definition

Is a the portion of the road way contiguous with the traveled way for
accommodation of stopped vehicles, for emergency use and for
lateral support of base and surface courses.

Road
Road
Shoulder
Shoulder

Plus Highway, Malaysia

Road Shoulder
--Types:

1.1 Paved Shoulder

1.2. Earth Shoulders

1.3 Gravel Shoulder

Surface Regularity
--Description

Important quality of a screened or floor surface which is often


describes as a measure of waviness of the road surface.
International Roughness Index (IRI) is used.
Shall be measured before opening to the traffic

Horizontal Alignment
--Description

Straight segment of road ways (Tangent) Connected to suitable curves (horizontal curves).
Measured from middle of the road.

Surface Course (Asphalt)


--Description

Any of various dark colored solid bituminous substances native in


various areas of the earth and composed mainly half hydro carbon
mixtures

Surface Course (Asphalt)


--Types

Surface Course
Porous
Porous Asphalt
Asphalt

Gap
Gap Graded
Graded
Asphalt
Asphalt

Stone
Stone Mastic
Mastic
Asphalt
Asphalt

Polymer
Polymer Modified
Modified
Asphaltic
Asphaltic
Concrete
Concrete

Cold
Cold In-Place
In-Place
Recycling
Recycling

Hot
Hot in-Place
in-Place
Recycling
Recycling

Porous Asphalt
--Description

Porous asphalt is a special-purpose wearing course. It is


produced using open-graded aggregate mixed with polymermodified binders and contains a relatively high and
interconnected air voids after compaction

Porous Asphalt
--Materials

Coarse & fine Aggregate


Mineral Filler
Bituminous Binder
Tack Coat

--Benefits

Improved skid resistance at high speeds, especially during wet


weather.
Reduced hydroplaning effects.
Reduced splash and spray.
Reduced headlight reflection and glare on wet pavement surface.
Reduced rolling tyre noise levels.

Stone Mastic Asphalt


--Description

Stone mastic asphalt or SMA is a polymer modified hot


bituminous mixture with a large proportion of coarse
aggregate and rich bitumen-filler mastic.

Stone Mastic Asphalt


--Materials

Coarse & fine Aggregate


Mineral Filler
Bituminous Binder
Stabilizing Agent

--Benefits
Provide Durable surfacing
High resistance to rutting
Good skid resistance

Gap-Graded Asphalt
--Description

Gap Graded Polymer Asphalt is used by many developed


countries. It is a wearing course containing polymer modified
bitumen and made up of 100 percent crushed aggregates.

Gap-Graded Asphalt
--Materials

Coarse & fine Aggregate


Mineral Filler
Bituminous Binder

--Benefits
Durable
Strength and safety of driving surface in dry or wet weather
The mix is suitable to solve cracking and deformation
problem
High Skid resistance

Comparison Of Surface Course


--Application and Usage Comparison
Porous Asphalt

Parking Loats
Drive Ways
Side Walks
Bike Paths
Playgrounds
Tennis Courts
If Proper Maintenance
Min 20years life

Stone Mastic Asphalt

Gap-Graded Asphalt

High Stress Areas


Climbing Lanes/
where excessive axial
loads are expected

High Stress Areas


Climbing Lanes/where
a high volume of
heavy vehicles are
considered