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Dasar-dasar Pengolahan

disiapkan oleh :
Dr. David Andrio, ST, M.Si
Satuan Process (Proses Biologi)

I. Mikro organisme
Berdasarkan susunan (arrangement) DNA dalam sel :
Eukaryota : several DNA molecules are contained in the
nucleus, which is enclosed by a nuclear membrane. Contoh :
bakteri dan archaea
Prokaryota : a single DNA molecule is found in the nuclear
region, called nucleoid, which is not
surrounded by a
membrane. Contoh : algae, fungi dan protozoa
In addition to the difference in the DNA arrangement,
prokaryotes and eukaryotes also distinctly differ in terms of
size and the presence of membrane enclosed internal
structures (called organelles) found only in eukaryotes.
Mikroorganisme dominan dalam pengolahan limbah adalah
prokaryota karena dapat berkembang biak pada berbagai
kondisi ekstrim

I. Mikro organisme

I. Mikro organisme

I. Mikro organisme
1. Bakteri
Pengelompokan berdasarkan morfologi :
1.spheroid (called cocci, 1 3 m in diameter),
2.rod-shaped (called bacilli, 0.3 -1.5 m in width and 1 10
m in length),
3.curved, rod-shaped (called vibrios, 0.6 1 m in width and
2 6 m in length),
4.spiral (called spirilla, up to 50 m in length) and
5.filamentous (100 m and longer).
Bacteria can use either light (phototrophic), organic
compounds (organotrophic), or inorganic chemicals
(lithotrophic) as energy source. A common molecular
formula used to represent bacteria is C5H7O2N.

I. Mikro organisme
2. Archaea
Most of are anaerobes and many live in
extreme environments such as hot springs (at
temperatures above the boiling point of
water), salty water bodies, highly acidic or
alkaline soils and water (Brock et al. 1994).
Distinctive differences exist in the chemical
composition of both cell wall and cell
membrane between bacteria and Archaea,
which explains the existence of Archaea in
such extreme environments.

I. Mikro organisme
3. Algae
From unicellular to large aggregates of filamentous cells.
Habitat : aquatic systems but because they are able to survive periods of

desiccation they are also found in terrestrial systems (i.e., soil,

tree bark, and rocks).
Algae contain chlorophylls and other pigments. A common
molecular formula used to represent algal biomass is
In addition to photosynthesis, algae also use oxygen for
respiratory metabolism, especially during periods of darkness,
resulting in the removal of oxygen from the aquatic system.
Excessive growth of algae (algal blooms) in eutrophic aquatic
systems (i.e., systems rich in nutrients, especially N and P) is a
nuisance and can lead to a severe depletion of oxygen during
periods of darkness resulting in death of fish and other
Some algae produce toxins that are toxic to both fish and human
beings. Several algal species produce organic compounds, which
are associated
with taste and odor in either surface water
supplies or during raw water filtration.

I. Mikro organisme
4. Fungi

These are aerobic, multicellular, non-photosynthetic, heterotrophic

Unicellular fungi, called yeasts, are facultative. Although there are
many aquatic fungal species, most are terrestrial, living in the soil.
Most fungi are saprophytic, that is, they use dead organic matter
as the carbon and energy source. A common molecular formula
used to represent fungal biomass is C10H17O6N.
Therefore, the nitrogen requirement is about one-half of that for
bacteria (based on the molecular formula C5H7O2N).
Fungi can tolerate more severe stresses than other
microorganisms: high osmotic pressure, low pH, and high water
tension (i.e., desiccation).

I. Mikro organisme
5. Protozoa

These are unicellular, non-photosynthetic, typically motile

eukaryotic microorganisms without cell walls. Most protozoa are
aerobic or facultative chemoheterotrophs, although some
anaerobic protozoa have also been found.
Protozoa are abundant in soil as well as in fresh and salt water
systems. Protozoa feed on bacteria and other microscopic
microorganisms, and aid in the clarification and purification of
streams and secondary wastewater treatment effluents. Protozoa
form cysts, some in response to exhaustion of food supply or
desiccation, and others as the normal part of the reproductive
Their optimum pH range is 68, although they can survive in
environments with pH values as low as 2 and as high as 8.7.

I. Mikro organisme
6. Virus
These are obligate intracellular parasites that contain genetic material
DNA or RNA necessary for their replication. However, they are
unable to synthesize compounds, but instead they invade living cells
(hosts) where they take over and redirect the cell activities to produce
new viral particles at the expense of the host cell.
Viruses, which infect bacteria, fungi, protozoa, plants and animals,
have been found. Invasion of the host cell does not always lead to
viral replication and lysis of the host cell (virulent or lytic viruses), but
the viral genetic material can be incorporated into the host DNA and
replicated, a process called lysogeny (temperate or lysogenic viruses).
Therefore, viruses are considered as agents of either disease or
heredity. Viruses cause a number of water-borne diseases, therefore,
removal and control of viruses in public water supplies is a major

Kim and Gadd, 2008. Bacterial Physiology and


Kim and Gadd, 2008. Bacterial Physiology and


Metcalf and Edy, Wastewater engineering. 4th


Metcalf and Edy, Wastewater engineering. 4th


Faktor Lingkungan Mikro organisme

r optimum


Yu and Fang, 2002. Acidogenesis of gelatin-rich wastewater

Bacterial Growth
Bacterial Reproduction : pembelahan sel, sel
awal terbelah menjadi 2 sel baru
Waktu yang dibutuhkan tiap pembelahan,
generation time, hari - < 20 menit. Misal.
generation time 20 menit, maka yield 1 bakteri
dalam 12 jam adalah 68,719,476,736 sel
Misal berat 1 bakteri 5.0 x 10 -15 g, maka akan
dihasilkan = 3.4 x 10 -04 g bakteri

Bacterial Growth on Batch Process

Bacterial Growth on Batch Process

Lag phase.
Time required to acclimate to new environment (salinity, pH & T), cell
division and biomass produce not significant
Exponential Growth Phase.
Pertumbuhan sel sangat cepat secara logaritma seiring dengan waktu.
Kondisi subtrate dan nutrisi berlimpah, laju pertumbuhan hanya dibatasi
Stationary phase.
Konsentrasi biomassa relatif konstan terhadap waktu, pertumbuhan
bakteri seperti fase eksponensial, jumlah bakteri yang hidup seimbang
dengan kematian sel
Death phase.
Tidak terjadi petumbuhan bakteri karena substrat berkurang dan terjadi
kematian biomassa.

Bacterial Growth and

Biomassa yield : rasio jumlah biomassa

yang diproduksi terhadap jumlah substrat

terkonsumsi (g biomass/g substrat)
Biomassa yield,
Y = (g biomass produced)
(g substrate utilized)
Untuk pengolahan limbah :
g biomassa/g COD tersisihkan atau
g biomassa/g BOD tersisihkan

Estimating Biomass Yield and

Oxygen Requirement fro
3C H O + 8O + 2NH 2C H NO + 8CO +14H 0


3 (180)
8(32) 2(17) 2(113),
MAKA, biomassa yang dihasilkan dari penggunaan
glukosa :
Y = (2C5H7NO2)/ (C6H12O6) = 2 (113 g/mole) / 3
(180 g/mole)
= 0.42 g sel/g glukosa
Jika 1 gr glukosa =1,07 gr COD, maka Yield
biomassa :
Y = 2 (113 g/mol)/[2 (180 g/mol)(1.07 g COD/g
= 0.39 g sel/g COD digunakan

Estimating Biomass Yield and Oxygen Requirement

fro Stoichiometry
Perhitungan jumlah oksigen :
1. Berdasarkan oksigen yang digunakan untuk oksidasi substrate
menjadi CO2 dan H2O,
C5H7NO2 + 5O2 CO2 + 2H2O + NH3
COD = [ (O2)]/[ (C5H7NO2)] = 5(32)/(113) = 1,42 g O2/g sel

COD dari biomassa

3C6H12O6 + 8O2 + 2NH3 2C5H7NO2 + 8CO2 +14H20
3 (180)
8(32) 2(17)
2 (113)
COD utilized = COD cells + COD of oxidized substrate
Oxygen consumed = COD utilized COD cells
= [(1,07 g O2/g glukosa) (3 mole x 180 g glukosa/mole)]
[(1.42 g O2/g cells) (2 mole x 113 g cells/mole)]
= 577,8 g O2 320,9 g O2 = 256,9 g O2
O2 consumed/glucose as COD :
= [256,9 g O2]/[3 mole (1.07 g COD/g glukosa) (180 g
= 0.44 g O2/g COD used


Diketahui COD terlarut, CODs =

/d, CODs
Qi, CODs
efluent 10 g/m3 dan VSS efluent
VSS out
1. Berapa yield
biomassa/penyisihan COD?
2. Berapa jumlah O2 yang
digunakan menyisihkan
1. Senyawa organik + O2 + nutriensenyawa
2 + CO2 + H2O
a. Produksi VSS = [VSS] x [Q] = 1000 m3/d x 200 g/m3 = 200.000 g
b. Gram CODs /d yang disisihkan = (500 g/m3 10 g/m3) x 1000 m3/d =
490.000 g COD/d
c. Yield observed biomassa = Yobs = [200.000 g VSS/d]/[490.000 g
Neraca massa COD pada kondisi steady state Akumulasi = inflow
outflow + konversi
= 0,41 g VSS/g COD
a. 0 = CODin - CODout penggunaan oksigen , COD in = 500.000 g
= CODs out + VSS out = [10 g/m3 x 1000 m3/d] + [200.000 g/m3
x 1,42 g COD/g VSS]
= 10.000 g/d + 284.000 g COD/d 294.000 g
b. Penggunaan oksigen : 500.000 gCOD/d 294.000 gCOD/d = 206.000 g

Kinetika Pertumbuhan Mikro Organisme


Laju penggunaan substrat terlarut : penurunan konsentrasi

rsu = - kXS
Ks + S
rsu = laju perubahan konsentrasi substrat karena penggunaan,
k = laju maksimum penggunaan substrat, g substrat/g
X = biomassa, g/m3
S = konsentrasi subtrat pembatas pertumbuhan dalam larutan,
Ks = konsentrasi kejenuhan = konsentrasi substrat pada = m/2,

Kinetika Pertumbuhan Mikro Organisme

Pertumbuhan maksimum bakteri juga terjadi pada kondisi
maksimum penggunaan substrat , dengan laju penggunaan
m = kY
k = m/Y


m = laju pertumbuhan spesifik maksimum, g sel baru/g sel.hari

k = laju penggunaan substrat spesifik maksimum, g/g.d
Y = koefisien true yield
Substitusi persamaa (3) ke persamaan (1), maka laju penggunaan
substrat :
rsu = mXS
Y (Ks + S)

Kinetika Pertumbuhan Mikro Organisme

Persamaan lain yang dapat digunakan untuk menyatakan laju
penggunaan substrat :
rsu = -k
rsu = -kS
rsu = kXS
rsu = -kX [S/S0] (8)
Rate of Soluble Substate Production from Biodegradable
Particulate Organic Matter
Municipal WW : kandungan senyawa organik terlarut 20-50% dan lebih
rendah pada indsutrial WW.
Laju konversi substrat partikulat :
rSC.P = - kp(P/X)X
(Kx + P/X)
rSC.P = laju perubahan konsentrasi partikel substrat karena konversi
menjadi bentuk
substrat terlarut, g/m3.d
Kp = laju maksimum spesifik konversi partikel, g P/g X.d
X = konsentrasi biomassa, g/m3
Kx = koefisien degradasi/2, g/g

Rate of Biomass Growth with soluble



= - Yrsu kdX
= Y kXS
k dX
Ks + S
= laju produksi biomassa, g VSS/m3.d
= koefisien sintesis yield , g VSS/g COD s
= koefisien endogenus decay, g VSS/g VSS.d

Jika persamaan (11) dibagi dengan konsentrasi biomassa, X, maka laju

pertumbuhan spesifik : = rg = Y - kS
- Kd
Ks + S
= laju pertumbuhan spesifik biomassa, g VSS/g VSS.d

Rate of Oxygen Uptake

rO =
rO =
rsu =
rg =

- rsu 1,42rg
laju penggunaan oksigen, g O2/m3.d
laju penggunaan substrat, g CODs/m3.d
= COD jaringan sel, g CODs/kg VSS
laju pertumbuhan biomassa, g VSS/m3.d

Efek Temperatur
kT = k20 (T-20)
kT = koefisien laju reaksi pada temperatur T, oC
= koefisien laju reaksi pada 20 OC
= koefisien kativitas-temperatur, 1,02-1,25
T = temperatur, OC