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Man has used sand and stone for

foundations for thousands of years.
Significant refinement of the production
and use of aggregate occurred during the
Roman Empire, which used aggregate to
build its vast network of roads and

Aggregates forms the major part of

pavement structure.
All bituminous and concrete surfacing are
principally composed of aggregates,they
play an important role in the behavior of the
pavement surfacing.

Woods definition :- Aggregate is an

aggregation of sand,gravel,stone,slag or any
other material,in combination with some
cementing material attains higher
engineering properties and form highway
materials like WBM,BM etc.

Road aggregate, or simply aggregate", is a broad

category of coarse particulate material used in
construction, including sand, gravel, crushed
stone, slag, recycled concrete and geosynthetic
Aggregates are a component of composite
materials such as concrete and asphalt concrete;
the aggregate serves as reinforcement to add
strength to the overall composite material.
Aggregates are widely used in drainage
applications such as foundation drains, retaining
wall drains, and road side edge drains. Aggregates
are also used as base material under foundations,

1) Origin :- Natural aggregates - Igneous rocks,
grain size
> 2mm - coarse.

2 to 0.2mm - medium.

< 0.2mm - fine.

Composition. Acidic > 66% of silica.

Intermediate 55 to 66% silica.

Basic < 55% silica.

Sedimentary rocks - classified as per

predominating material,

Chalk,limestone, sandstone, clay,shell etc.
Metamorphic rocks.
Artificial aggregate - by product of industrial
processes ex. Blast furnace slag.
2) Strength :- Hard aggregate - granite,basalt.

Soft aggregate - canker,moorum


3) Shape of aggregate Cubical,Round,Angular,Flaky

4) Grading .
Open graded -when some particular type and size is
Dense graded - different size and shape of aggregates
are used.
Skip graded - if a particular size is missing.
Uniformly graded - if all the particles are of same size.
5) Size .
C A - > 2.36 mm,
F A - passing 2.36 mm retained
on 75 micron.
Filler - passing 75 micron.

Desirable properties of aggregates.

1) Resistance to crushing .
2) Resistance to abrasion.
3) Resistance to impact.
4) Good shape.
5) Water absorption.
6) Resistance to weathering.
7) Good adhesion.
8) Surface texture.
9) Porosity.
10) Surface chemistry.

Aggregate Characterization
Aggregate Physical Properties
Maximum Aggregate Size
Other Aggregate Properties
Toughness and Abrasion Resistance
Specific Gravity
Particle Shape and Surface Texture
Durability and Soundness
Cleanliness and Deleterious Materials

IS:2386-1963 Methods of test for

Part 1 Particle size and shape
Part 2 Estimation of deleterious materials
and organic impurities
Part 3 Specific gravity, density, voids,
absorption and bulking
Part 4 Mechanical properties
Part 5 Soundness

Aggregate Gradation IS:2386-1963 Part I

The gradation and size test (Figure 1) is used to determine

aggregate particle size distribution. Size distribution is perhaps the
single most important aggregate quality associated with the control
of HMA mixtures. Aggregate gradation and size affect HMA
volumetric properties as well as mixture permeability and

In a gradation and size analysis, a sample of dry

aggregate of known weight is separated through a
series of sieves with progressively smaller
Once separated, the weight of particles retained on
each sieve is measured and compared to the total
sample weight.
Particle size distribution is then expressed as a
percent retained by weight on each sieve size.

The particle size distribution, or gradation, of the

constituent aggregate is one of the most influential
characteristics in determining how an aggregate mixture
will perform as a pavement material.
Aggregate gradation influences almost every important
property including stiffness, stability, durability,
permeability, workability, fatigue resistance, skid
resistance and resistance to moisture damage (Roberts et
al., 1996).

Gradation is often expressed in graphical form.

Typically gradation graphs use concepts of
maximum density gradation and its expression in
equation form to plot a special graph referred to as
the FHWA (Federal Highway Administration) 0.45
power graph.
Maximum Density Gradation
Theoretically, there exists a particular gradation
that, for a given maximum aggregate size, will
produce the maximum density.
This gradation would involve a particle
arrangement where successively smaller particles
are packed within the voids between larger
particles .

If done ideally, this would result in a

minimum void space between particles and
produce a maximum density.

Practically, an aggregate gradation of

maximum density is not desired because a
certain amount of void space is required to
provide adequate volume for the asphalt
binder to occupy.

Fuller and Thompson's Equation

(Interactive Equation)
Regardless of its practical use, a maximum density
gradation provides a convenient reference. In 1907, Fuller
and Thompson developed a widely used equation to
describe a maximum density gradation for a given
maximum aggregate size.
P = percent finer than an aggregate size
d = aggregate size being considered
D = maximum aggregate size
n = parameter which adjusts curve for
fineness or coarseness (for maximum
particle density n 0.5 according to Fuller
and Thompson)

The 0.45 Power Maximum Density Graph

In the early 1960s, the FHWA introduced the
standard gradation graph used in the HMA
industry today.
This graph uses Fuller and Thompson's equation
with n = 0.45 and is convenient for determining
the maximum density line and adjusting gradation
(Roberts et al., 1996).
This graph is slightly different than other
gradation graphs because it uses the sieve size
raised to the nth power (usually 0.45) as the x-axis
units. Thus, a plot of Fuller and Thompson's
maximum density equation with n = 0.45 appears
as a straight diagonal line.

This straight line goes from zero to the

maximum aggregate size for the gradation
being considered. There is some debate as
to whether this line should end at maximum
aggregate size or nominal maximum
aggregate size or somewhere in between,
however the most commonly accepted
practice is to end it at the maximum
aggregate size.

To illustrate how the maximum density curves was

determined, Table shows the associated calculations for a
maximum aggregate size of 19.0 mm.

Calculations for a 0.45 Power Gradation Curve Using 19.0-mm (0.75inch) Maximum Aggregate Size

Desired Gradation
Gradation has a profound effect on material performance.
What is the best gradation?
The answer to which will vary depending upon the
material (HMA or PCC), its desired characteristics,
loading, environmental, material, structural and mix
property inputs.
The best gradation is one that produces the maximum
A particle arrangement where smaller particles are packed
between the larger particles, which reduces the void space
between particles.
This creates more particle-to-particle contact, which would
increase stability and reduce water infiltration.

Desired Gradation
Some minimum amount of void space is necessary
Provide adequate volume for the binder (asphalt
binder or portland cement) to occupy.
Promote rapid drainage and resistance to frost
action for base and subbase courses.
Therefore, although it may not be the "best"
aggregate gradation, a maximum density gradation
does provide a common reference.

Nominal Maximum and Maximum Size

Nominal maximum size - one size larger

than the first sieve to retain more than 10%
Maximum size - one size larger than
nominal maximum size.
ASTM, STP 1147 demonstrates the
importance of correctly defining the
maximum size to ensure a valid maximum
density line is drawn.

Fineness Modulus

Aggregate Crushing Value IS: 2386 (Part IV)

The aggregate crushing value indicates the ability of an
aggregate to resist crushing.
The lower the figure the stronger the aggregate, i.e. the greater
its ability to resist crushing.
Metal measure
Tamping rod
Below mentioned are its
Three sizes 75mm dia for
1/8 to 1/4 Size aggregate,
150mm dia for 3/8 to 3/4
Size aggregate
300mm dia for 1 to 2
size aggregate

Aggregate passing IS sieve 12.5 mm and retained on

10 mm sieve is generally used.
Oven dried aggregates are filled in the measuring
cylinder of 11.5cm dia. & 18.0cm height in 3 equal
layers, each layer being subjected to 25 tamps with a
tamping rod of 16mm dia and 45 to 60mm long.
The crushing test apparatus consist of a 15cm dia
open ended heavy steel cylinder,plunger and a base
Compression testing machine a load of 40 tonnes is
applied in 10 min.crushed agg. Sieved through 2.36
mm sieve.

Agg crushing value > 35 weak for pavement.

Agg crushing value < 10 exceptionally strong.
For majority of aggregates the impact value and
crushing value are numerically similar.
Rock group Crushing value Impact value
Lime stone

Aggregate Impact Value IS: 2386 (Part IV)

Toughness of an aggregate is its resistance to failure by impact.
Satisfactory resistance to crushing under roller during
construction. Adequate resistance to surface abrasion
under traffic.
A base, which helps in supporting
the columns to form a rigid
framework around the quick release
trigger mechanism for ensuring the
effective free fall of the hammer
during test.
The hammer is offered with locking
arrangement and the free fall can be
easily adjusted through the 380+
cylindrical cup, with the metal
measure 75 mm dia x 50 mm high
and tamping rod.

Impact value.
Due to traffic loads the road stones are subjected to the
pounding action or impact.
IS sieves 12.5 mm,10 mm & 2.36 mm.
Cylindrical steel cup of dia 10.2 cm & depth 5 cm.
Metal hammer of weight 13.5 to 14 kg.Height of fall 38
cm. Cylindrical measure with internal dia 7.5 cm & depth
5 cm.
Metal tamping of 1 cm dia.23 cm long.
< 10 % exceptionally strong.
10 - 20 % strong.
20 - 30 % satisfactory. > 35 % weak.

Elongation & Flakiness Index IS: 2386

When the length is more than 1.8 of the mean dimension,
then the aggregate particles are considered elongated.
The aggregate particles are to be flaky, if the thickness is
less than the 0.6 of their mean dimension.

A revisit to aggregate shape parameters

Animesh Das
Aggregates constitute major part of the pavement
structure. The engineering properties of the aggregates, as
well as its shape (i.e. form and angularity) and texture,
substantially affect the overall performance of the
pavement (Kuo and Freeman 1998, Maerz 2004).
A number of researchers reported that form and surface
texture of aggregates have significant effect on the
mechanical property of the bituminous mixes, for example,
shear resistance, durability, stiffness, fatigue resistance,
rutting resistance, workability, bitumen demand etc.
(Herrin and Goetz 1954, Benson 1970, Ishai and Gelber
1982, Kalcheff and

Aggregate Abrasion Value IS: 2386 (Part IV)

The Los Angeles (L.A.) abrasion test is a common test method used
to indicate aggregate toughness and abrasion characteristics.
Aggregate abrasion characteristics are important because the
constituent aggregate in HMA must resist crushing, degradation and
disintegration in order to produce a high quality HMA.
Aggregates must be tough and
abrasion resistant to prevent
crushing, degradation, and
disintegration when stockpiled, fed
through an asphalt plant, placed with
a paver, compacted with
rollers, and subjected to traffic

Abrasive charge shall consist of a solid,

steel sphere having a mass between 390 and
445 g. with a diameter of 46.5 0.5 mm.
A, B, C, D, E, F and G
Total Mass = 5000 10 gm for A, B, C and D
Total Mass = 10,000 20 gm for E, F and G.

For the L.A. abrasion test, the portion of an

aggregate sample retained on the 1.70 mm sieve is
placed in a large rotating drum that contains a
shelf plate attached to the outer wall.
A specified number of steel spheres are then
placed in the machine and the drum is rotated for
500 revolutions at a speed of 30 - 33 revolutions
per minute (RPM).
The material is then extracted and separated into
material passing and retained on the 1.70 mm
The retained material is then weighed and
compared to the original sample weight. The
difference in weight is reported as a percent of the
original weight and called the "percent loss".

Rock Type

L.A Abrasion value

General Values
Hard, igneous rocks 10
Soft limestones and sandstones 60

Ranges for Specific Rocks

10 - 17
18 30
33 57
27 - 49
19 30
20 - 35

Polished StoneValue, (PSV)

BS 812 : Testing Aggregates : Part 114
The PSV of an aggregate is a measure of the resistance of an aggregate to
The value is established by subjecting the aggregate to a standard
polishing process, and then testing the aggregate with the Portable Skid
Resistance Tester to determine its PSV.
The property that an aggregate possesses which gives it a good PSV is
often referred to as its' MICRO-TEXTURE.
Aggregates that retain a significant microtexture after polishing are the
aggregates that give good resistance to skidding,
i.e. have a high Polished Stone Value.

The PSV is a value applicable to a particular aggregate and NOT the road
surface, however the use of high PSV aggregate in a bituminous mixture laid
as a surface course will produce a road surface with a high Skid Resistance
Value (SRV), subject to the road surface having sufficient texture (MACROTEXTURE).
Aggregate that has a PSV over 60 is regarded as a High Skid Resistant
Aggregate, but aggregate with a PSV over 65 is needed for particularly high
stressed sites.
The higher the the PSV figure the greater resistance the aggregate has to
polishing, and the greater the ability the aggregate has to retain its inherent
very fine surface texture, i.e. MICRO-TEXTURE.


Angularity number
Angular particles possess well defined edges
and are commonly found in aggregates
prepared by crushing of rocks.
Angularity or absence of rounding of particles
in aggregate is a property which is of
importance because it affects ease of handling
a mixture of aggregate and binder.
The degree of packing of particles of single
sized aggregates depends upon the shape and
angularity of the aggregate.

Angularity of aggregate can be estimated from

properties of voids in a sample of aggregate
compacted in a particular manner.
Rounded gravel particles possess lesser voids
(mostly 33%, i.e. 67% solids, by volume) as
compared to the angular particles.
Angularity number measures the percentage of
voids in angular particles in excess of that in the
rounded gravel particles.

Angularity number

= % of solid volume in a vessel filled

with aggregate in a standard manner - 67
(i.e. % volume of solids of the rounded
The higher the angularity number, the more
angular the aggregate.
The range of angularity number for
practical aggregates is between 0 and 11

Unit Weight
(unit mass or bulk density)
The weight of the aggregate required to fill a
container of a specified unit volume.
Volume is occupied by both the
aggregates and the voids between the
aggregate particles.
Depends on size distribution and
shape of particles and how densely the
aggregate is packed
Loose bulk density
Rodded or compact bulk density

Specific Gravity (Relative density)

Absolute: the ratio of the weight of the solid to the weight of an
equal volume of water (both at a stated temperature)
refers to volume of the material excluding all pores
Apparent: ratio of the weight of the aggregate (dried in an oven at
212- 230F for 24 hours) to the weight of water occupying
a volume equal to that of the solid including the
impermeable pores
volume of solid includes impermeable pores (but not
capillary pores)

Shrinkage of Aggregates:
Large Shrinkage =

fine grained sandstones,

slate, basalt, trap rock,

Low Shrinkage =

quartz, limestone,
granite, feldspar


The ratio of (1) the diameter of a grain (particle) of a size that is barely
too large to pass through a sieve that allows 60 percent of the material
(by weight) to pass through, to (2) the diameter of a grain (particle) of
a size that is barely too large to pass through a sieve that allows 10
percent of the material (by weight) to pass through. The resulting ratio
is a measure of the degree of uniformity in a granular material, such as
filter media.

Test to determine relation of sieve size at which 60% of aggregate

passes against the sieve size at which 10% passes. The result is
expressed as a number; the higher the number the more blended the
coarse and fine elements of the material.

The measure of variation in particle sizes of filter and ion exchange

media. The coefficient is defined as the ratio of the sieve size that will
permit passage of 60% of the media by weight to the sieve size that
will permit passage of 10% of the media material by weight.

Uniformity Coefficient Cu (measure of the particle size

Cu is also called Hazen Coefficient
Cu = D60/D10
Cu < 5 ----- Very Uniform
Cu = 5 ----- Medium Uniform
Cu > 5 ----- Nonuniform
Uniformity coefficient Cu:Cu= D60/D10where D60is the
diameter for which 60% of the sample is finer than
D60.The ratio of two characteristic sizes are the
uniformity coefficient Cu. Apparently, larger Cu means
the size distribution is wider and vice versa. Cu= 1
means uniform, all grains are in the same size, such as
the case of dune sands . On the other extreme is the
glacial till, for which its Cu can reach 30.from Cu=
D60/D10 , then D60= CuD10

Granular subbases and bases .

A subbase is layer of material between base and
subgrade. Sometimes a granular material under a
rigid pavement is called a subbase.
Subbase may consist of select materials, such as
natural gravels, that are stable but that have
characteristics which make them not completely
suitable as base course. They may also be of
stabilized soil or merely select borrow.

The purpose of a subbase is to permit the

building of relatively thick pavements at
low cost. Thus , the quality of subbase can
vary within wide limits , as long as the
thickness design criteria are fulfilled.

A base course is defined as a layer of

granular material which lies immediately
below the wearing surface of a pavement .

Purpose of base courses.

Base and subbase courses under flexible pavements are

primarily to increase the load supporting capacity by
distributing the load through a finite thickness of
pavement this will reduce shear and consolidation
deformation in the subgrade.
Base courses are used under rigid pavements for
1) Prevention of pumping.
2) Protection against frost action.
3) Drainage.
4) Prevention of volume change of subgrade
5) Increased structural capacity.
6) Expedition of construction.

To prevent pumping a base course must be relatively

well graded,must be free from excessive fines and
should be compacted to a relatively high density.
To provide drainage the base may or may not be a
well graded material but it should contain little or no
Base course designed for frost action should be non
frost susceptible and free draining.
Base course need not to be free draining to provide
adequate structural capacity.
Base course should be well graded and should resist
deformation due to loading.

Properties of soil aggregate mix.

Density and stability : depends upon particle
size distribution,particle shape,relative
density,internal friction and cohesion.
An aggregate which contains little or no fines
and is well graded gains its stability from
grain to grain contact but usually has
relatively low density but is pervious and non
frost susceptible.This material is very difficult
to handle during construction because of its
noncohesive nature.

An aggregate which contains sufficient

fines to fill all the voids will still gain its
strength from grain contact but with
increased resistance against deformation.Its
density is high,its permeability is low,and it
may be frost susceptible.This material is
moderately difficult to compact but is ideal
from stability point,it will have relatively
high shearing resistance.

An aggregate which contains great amount

of fines has no grain to grain contact ,and
the aggregate merely floats in the soil.Its
density is low;it is practically
impervious,and it is frost susceptible.In
addition the stability of this type of mixture
is greatly affected by adverse water
conditions. The material is at times is quite
easy to handle during construction and
compacts quite readily.

Maximum CBR resulted when the quantity of

fines was somewhat less than that indicated
for maximum density.
CBR of mixtures made up of angular
particles are usually somewhat greater than
those containing mostly rounded particles .
Density as well as CBR increases as size of
aggregate increased but optimum soil content

Permeability : The permeability characteristics

of soil aggregate mixtures are dependent upon :
1) Grain size distribution.
2) Type of coarse aggregate.
3) Type of binder.
4) Density.
The coefficient of permeability is defined in the
equation : v = KIA
v = discharge velocity.
I = hydraulic gradient (loss in head per unit of length).
K = coefficient of permeability. 0.001 to 1.0.

Effect of plasticity : The liquid limit for base

courses is 25 % and the plasticity index is 6 %.
Soundness : Soundness is defined as the ability
of aggregate to withstand abrasion/
crushing.This is important from the standpoint
of generation of fines under the action of
rollers and traffic.Soft aggregate should not be
Aggregate which breakdown excessively under
freezing and thawing should not be used.

Behavior under load :Laboratory test,as well as

field performance,have indicated that the behavior of
base course - subgrade combinations under load is
reflected by the stability of base course itself.
Laboratory and field data indicate that a base course
which contains quantity of fines slightly less than
that required for maximum density will be stable.
If a granular base course is used for drainage purpose
or for protection against frost action, it is essential
that it remain open graded throughout the pavement
life.This can be done by placing a thin blanket of
sand or other fine granular material between the
subgrade and base course.

The purpose of gradation specifications for base courses and
sub bases is to assure adequate stability under repeated

Proportioning materials of different specific

gravities : Any gradation specification is valid only so
long as the fine fractions and the coarse aggregates have
approximately the same specific gravity.
Although the physical characteristics of the soil aggregate
mixture are dependent upon relative volumes of the course
to fine aggregate. However it is not practical to attempt
proportioning of materials on the basis of volume; therefore,
specifications are always set up on the per cent by weight

If the coarse aggregate has a specific

gravity considerably higher than that of the
fine fraction, gradation will result in
mixtures which are too rich. Conversely , if
the specific gravity of the fine fraction is
higher than that of the coarse aggregate, the
quantity of fines will be low.

Soil aggregate mixtures :To ensure adequate
stability, base and subbase materials must be
compacted to a high density . Moisture control
is extremely important.
Granular base course materials may be
compacted in lifts ranging upto 6, depending
upon the type of compaction equipment. If
smooth wheeled compactors are used , the lift
should be controlled to about 4.However if
vibratory compactors are used , lifts upto 8 or
10 are permitted.

Field experience has indicated that

compaction of base course materials to
densities in excess of the modified
AASHO values is quite common when
vibrating compactors are used.
Care should be exercised to insure uniform
distribution of the base course materials
over the subgrade to prevent segregation.
Make certain that the clay binder and
aggregate are thoroughly mixed.

MORT&H Section 400

Sub-Bases,Bases (Non-Bituminous) and
Natural sand, crushed gravel, crushed
stone, or combination. The material shall
be free from organic or other deleterious
Table 400-1 Four gradings for Granular
Sub-Base .

Gradings I and II -well graded granular

sub-base. Used at locations where
drainage requirement are not
Gradings III and IV - gap graded for
drainage requirements. For location
experiencing heavy rainfall, flooding etc.

Where GSB is to be provided in two layers,

grading III or IV for lower layer and grading I or
II for upper layer. Minimum thickness of lower
layer not less than 200 mm.
Physical requirements: 10 percent fines value of
50kN or more (for sample in soaked condition)
IS:2386 (Part IV) 1963.
The water absorption value of the coarse
aggregate as per IS:2386 (Part 3). If this value is
greater than 2 percent, the soundness test shall be
carried out as per IS:383.
For Gradings II and IV materials, the CBR shall
be determined at the density and moisture content
likely to be developed in the field.

Strength of Sub-Base
Table 400-1 Grading for Granular Sub-base Materials

The material to be used in the

sub-base satisfies the
requirements of CBR and other
physical requirements.

IS Sieve

The material passing 425 micron

(0.425 mm) sieve when tested
according to IS:2720 (Part 5)
shall have liquid limit and
plasticity index not more than 25
and 6 percent respectively.
The material should be
compacted to achieve at least 98
percent of the maximum dry
density as per IS:2720 (Part 8).

Percent by weight passing the IS sieve


Grading II

Grading III

Grading IV

75.0 mm



53.0 mm




26.5 mm

55 90




9.50 mm



4.75 mm

25 55


10- 15


2.36 mm

20- 40


0.425 mm



0.075 mm








CBR Value (Minimum) 30


Laying and compacting sub-grade/lower sub-base of soil
treated with lime on prepared sub-grade. Lime treatment is
generally effective for soils which contain a relatively high
percentage of clay and silty clay.
Soil : The soil used for stabilization shall be the local
clayey soil having a plasticity index greater than 8.
Lime : Commercial dry lime slaked at site, purity not less
than 70% by weight of Quick-lime (CaO) IS:1514,
properly stored to avoid prolonged exposure to the
atmosphere and consequent carbonation which would
reduce its binding properties.

Quantity of lime in stabilized mix :

Percentage by weight of the dry soil and depending
upon Cao content. The mix design shall be done to
arrive at the appropriate quantity of lime to be added.
Water : Potable water shall be preferred.
Lime-soil stabilisation shall not be done when the air
temperature in the shade is less than 10 C.
The thickness of any layer to be stabilized shall be not
less than 100 mm when compacted. The maximum
thickness can be 200 mm.
Table 400-2 Soil Pulverisation Requirements for Lime
IS Sieve
Minimum percent by
passing the IS Sieve
26.5 mm


5.6 mm


Moisture content for compaction : shall not be less than the optimum moisture
content corresponding to IS:2720 (Part 8) nor more than 2 percent above it.

Curing : A minimum period of 7 days.

Strength : The soil-lime mix shall be tested for its CBR Value, unconfined
compressive strength (UCS) at 7 days.


Laying and compacting a sub-base/base course of soil treated with cement on

prepared subgrade/sub-base.

Material to be stabilised : soil including sand and gravel, laterite, kankar, brick
aggregate, crushed rock or slag or any combination of these. The material shall
have a grading shown in Table 400-3(a). It shall have a uniformity coefficient
not less than 5, capable of producing a well-closed surface finish.

If the material passing 425 micron sieve is plastic, it shall have a liquid limit not
greater than 45% and a plasticity index not more than 20% IS:2720 (Part 5).
The physical requirements for the material to be treated with cement for use in a
base course shall be same as for Grading I Granular Sub-base. .

Cement : Ordinary portland cement, portland slag cement

or portland puzzolana cement, comply with the
requirements of IS:269, 455 or 1489 respectively.

Table 400-3 Grading Limits of Material for Stabilisation with Cement

IS sieve size

Percentage by mass passing

Within the range

53.00 mm


37.5 mm

95 100

19.0 mm

45 100

9.5 mm

35 100

4.75 mm

25 100

600 micron

8 65

300 micron

5 40

75 micron

0 10

Lime : If needed for pre-treatment of highly clayey soils.

Quantity of cement in stabilised mix : Percent by weight of the dry

soil. The mix design shall be done on the basis of 7 day UCS and/or
durability test under 12 cycles of wet-dry conditions. The laboratory
strength values shall be at least 1.5 times the minimum field UCS

Water : Clean and free from injurious substances, potable water.

Degree of pulverisation : Same as that for lime treated surfaces.

Moisture content for compaction : Shall not be less than the OMC
corresponding to IS:2720 (Part 8) nor more than 2 per cent above it.

Curing : Suitably cured for 7 days.


Clean crushed aggregates mechanically interlocked by rolling and

bonding together with screening, binding material. This specification
is meant for repairs and minor works of widening nature, and also at
locations where it is not feasible to lay WMM.

Coarse aggregates : Crushed or broken stone, crushed slag, overburnt
(Jhama) brick aggregates or any other naturally occurring aggregates
such as kankar and laterite.
Materials other than crushed or broken stone and crushed slag shall be
used in sub-base courses only. If crushed gravel /shingle is used, not
less than 90 percent by weight of the gravel/shingle pieces retained on
4.75 mm sieve shall have at least two fractured faces. The aggregates
shall conform to the physical requirements set forth in Table 400-5. If
the water absorption value of the coarse aggregate is greater than 2
percent, the soundness test shall be carried as per IS:2386 (Part 5).

Table 400-5 Physical Requirements of Coarse

Aggregates for Water Bound Macadam for Subbase/Base Courses




Los Angeles Abrasion


IS:2386 (Part-1V)

40 percent (Max)

Aggregate Impact

IS: 2386 (Part-4) or


30 percent (Max)

Flakiness and
Indices (Total) **

IS:2386 (Part-1)

40 percent (Max)


Aggregates which get softened in presence of water shall be tested for Impact value under wet conditions in accordance with
** The requirement of flakiness index and elongation index shall be enforced only in the case of crushed broken stone and
crushed slag.

Crushed or broken stone : It shall be hard, durable and

free from excess flat, elongated, soft and disintegrated
particles, dirt and other deleterious material.
Crushed slag : It shall be made from air-cooled blast
furnace slag. It shall be of angular shape, reasonably
uniform in quality and density and generally free from
thin, elongated and soft pieces, dirt or other deleterious
materials. The weight of crushed slag shall not be less
than 11.2 kN per m3 and the percentage of glossy material
shall not be more than 20. It should also comply with the
following requirements:
i) Chemical stability : To comply with requirements of
appendix of BS:1047.
ii) Sulphur content : Maximum 2 percent
iii) Water absorption : Maximum 10 percent

Overburnt (Jhama) brick aggregates : Shall be made

from overburnt bricks or brick bats and be free from dust
and other objectionable and deleterious materials. This
shall be amount only for road stretch when traffic is low.

Grading requirement of coarse aggregates : As per

Table 400-6 .The use of Grading No.1 shall be restricted to
sub-base courses only.
The compacted thickness for a layer shall be 75 mm.

Table 400-6 Grading Requirements of Coarse Aggregates

Size Range

IS sieve designation

% by weight passing

63 mm to 45 mm

75 mm


63 mm

90 100

53 mm

25 75

45 mm

0 15

22.4 mm


63 mm


53 mm

95 100

45 mm

65 90

22.4 mm

0 10

11.2 mm


Grading no

53 mm to 22.4 mm

Screenings : Screenings to fill voids in the coarse aggregate shall

generally consist of the same material as the coarse aggregate.
However, where permitted, predominantly non-plastic material such
as moorum or gravel (other than rounded river borne material) may
be used for this purpose provided liquid limit and plasticity index of
such material are below 20 and 6 respectively and fraction passing
75 micron sieve does not exceed 10 percent.

Screenings shall conform to the grading set forth in Table 400-7. The
consolidated details of quantity of screenings required for various
grades of stone aggregates are given in Table 400-8. The table also
gives the quantities of materials (loose) required for 10 m2 for subbase/base compacted thickness of 75 mm.

The use of screenings shall be omitted in the case of soft aggregates

such as brick metal, kankar, laterites, etc. as they are likely to get
crushed to a certain extent under rollers.

Binding material : It is to be used for water bound

macadam as a filler material meant for preventing
ravelling shall comprise of a suitable material
approved by the Engineer having a Plasticity Index
(PI) value of less than 6 as determined in
accordance with IS:2720 (Part-5).
The quantity of binding material where it is to be
used, will depend on the type of screenings.
Generally, the quantity required for 75 mm
compacted thickness of water bound macadam will
be 0.060.09 m3 per 10 m2.

Table 400-7 Grading For Screenings


Size of

IS Sieve

Per cent by
passing the sieve








180 micron






180 micron




This work shall consist of breaking and crushing the damaged cement
concrete slabs and re-compacting the same as sub-base/base course in
one or more layers. Where specified, it shall also include treating the
surface of the top layer with a penetration coat of bitumen.
Coarse aggregates : broken cement concrete slabs crushed to a size
not exceeding 75 mm and as far as possible, conforming to one of the
gradings given in Table 400-7.
Key aggregates : Key aggregate for the penetration coat shall consist
crushed stone, crushed gravel, shingle or other stones. The aggregate
shall be 11.2 mm size defined as 100 percent passing through 13.2 mm
sieve and retained on 5.6 mm sieve and shall satisfy the physical
requirements set forth in Table 500-3.
Binder : Binder for the penetration coat for the top layer shall be
bitumen of a suitable grade, as directed by the Engineer and satisfying
the requirements of IS:73, 217 or 454, as applicable or any approved
cutback or emulsion, satisfying the requirements of IS:8887.


Laying and compacting clean, crushed, graded aggregate and granular

material, premixed with water, to a dense mass on a prepared subgrade/subbase/ base or existing pavement.
The thickness of a single compacted Wet Mix Macadam layer shall not
be less than 75 mm. When vibrating or other approved types of
compacting equipment are used, the compacted depth of a single layer
of the sub-base course may be upto 200 mm.


Physical requirements : Coarse aggregates shall be crushed stone. If

crushed gravel/shingle is used, not less than 90 percent by weight of
the gravel/shingle pieces retained on 4.75 mm sieve shall have at least
two fractured faces. The aggregates shall conform to the physical
requirements set forth in Table 400-9. If the water absorption value of
the coarse aggregate is greater than 2 percent, the soundness test shall
be carried out on the material delivered to site as per IS:2386 (Part-5).

Grading requirements : The aggregates shall conform to the grading given

in Table 400-10.
Table 400-9 Physical Requirements of Coarse Aggregates for Wet
Mix Macadam for Sub- base/Base Courses


Test Method


Los Angeles Abrasion value

IS:2386 (Part-4)

40 percent (Max.)

Aggregate Impact value

IS:2386 (Part-4) or

30 percent (Max.)

Combined Flakiness and Elongation

indices (Total)

IS:2386 (Part-1)

40 percent (Max.)*

Table 400-10 Grading Requirements of Aggregates for Wet Mix Macadam

IS Sieve

Per cent by weight passing the IS Sieve

Grade 1 layer

Grade 2<100 mm

53.00 mm


45.00 mm

95 100

26.50 mm


22.40 mm

60 80


11.20 mm

40 60

4.75 mm

25 40


2.36 mm

15 30

600.00 micron

8 22


75.00 micron

0 -5


Material finer than 425 micron shall have Plasticity Index

(PI) not exceeding 6.


The work shall consist of constructing shoulder (hard/paved/earthen

with brick or stone block edging) on either side of the pavement,
median in the road dividing the carriageway into separate lanes and
islands for canalizing the traffic at junctions.

Shoulder on either side of the road may be of selected earth/granular
material/paved conforming to the requirements of Clause 305/401 and
the median may be of selected earth conforming to the requirements of
Clause 305.

Median/Traffic islands shall be raised and kerbed at the perimeter and

the enclosed area filled with earth and suitably covered with grass
turf/shrubs. Paved shoulders shall consist of sub-base, base and
surfacing courses, and materials for the same shall conform to relevant
Specifications of the corresponding items. Where paved or hard
shoulders are not provided, the pavement shall be provided with
brick/stone block edgings.



This work shall consist of constructing

cement concrete kerbs and kerbs with
channel in the central median and/or along
the footpaths or separators.
Kerbs and kerb with channel shall be
provided in cement concrete of Grade M 20
in accordance with Section 1700 of these


Constructing footpaths and/or separators, including provision of all drainage

The footpaths and separators shall be constructed with any of the following
a) Cast-in-situ cement concrete of Grade M 20 as per Section 1700 of
the Specifications.
b) Precast cement concrete blocks/tiles of Grade M 20 as per Section 1700 of the
Specifications. The minimum thickness of the cement concrete block/tile shall be
25 mm and minimum size shall be 300 mm x 300 mm.
c) Natural stone slab cut and dressed from stone of good and sound quality,
uniform in texture. The minimum thickness of the natural stone slab shall be 25
mm and minimum size shall be 300 mm x 300 mm.


This work shall consist of furnishing, placing and compacting crushed stone
aggregate sub-base and base courses constructed in accordance with the
requirements set forth in these Specifications and in conformity with the lines,
grades, thickness and cross-sections shown on the plans or as directed by the

Crushed rock, if crushed
gravel/shingle is used, not
less than 90 percent by
weight of the
gravel/shingle pieces
retained on 4.75 mm sieve
shall have at least two
fractured faces. The
aggregates shall conform
to the grading and quality
requirements given in
Tables 400-11 and 400-12.

Table 400.11 Aggregate Grading Requirements

Sieve Size

Per cent passing by weight

53 mm max.

37.5 mm max.

63 mm


45 mm

87 100


22.4 mm

50 85

90 100

5.6 mm

25 45

35 55

710 mm

10 25

10 30

90 mm



Table 400.12 Physical Requirements of Coarse Aggregates for

Crusher-run Macadam Base

Test Method


Los Angeles Abrasion value

Aggregate Impact value

IS:2386 (Part-4)
IS:2386 (Part-4) or IS:5640

40 maximum
30 maximum

Combined Flakiness and

Elongation Indices (Total)

IS:2386 (Part-1)

40 maximum**

*Water absorption

IS:2386 (Part-3)

2 percent maximum

Liquid Limit of material

passing 425 micron

IS:2720 (Part-5)

25 maximum

Plasticity Index of material

passing 425 micron

IS:2720 (Part-5)

6 maximum

If the water absorption is more than 2 percent, soundness test shall be carried out as
per IS:2386 (Part-5)
** Combined Flakiness index and Elongation index.