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Distributed Generation & Power

Quality

Wei-Jen Lee, Ph.D., PE


Professor of Electrical Engineering
The University of Texas at Arlington
July 10, 2003

Introduction
Perspectives on DG Benefits
End-User Perspective
Back Generation to Provide Improved Reliability
Reduce Energy Bill
Participation in the Competitive Power Market

Distribution Utility Perspective


Transmission & Distribution Relief
Hedge Against of Uncertain Load Growth
Hedge Against Price Spike

Commercial Power Producer Perspective


Selling Power or Ancillary Service in the Deregulated Market
Integrated Resource Planning

Introduction
Disadvantages of DG
Power Quality
Cost of Operation and Maintenance
Long Term Reliability of the Units
Interconnection

Introduction

DG Technologies
Reciprocating Engine Genset
The Least Expensive DG Technology
High Nox and Sox Emission. This Severely Limits the
Number of Hours the Units, Particularly Diesels, May
Operate per Year.
Natural Gas-Fire Engine Produce Fewer Emission.
However, the Natural Gas Price is Unpredictable.

DG Technologies
Reciprocating Engine Genset

DG Technologies
Combustion Turbine
Range from 1 to 10 MW
High Speed: 8 12 kRPM
Microturbine
30 75 kW
10 100 kRPM
Efficiency: 25 30 %

DG Technologies
Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage

DG Technologies
Carbon Nanotube

DG Technologies
Fuel Cell

DG Technologies
Fuel Cell
Phosphoric Acid (PAFC)
PAFCs generate electricity at more than 40% efficiency
Operating temperatures are in the range of 300 to 400 degrees
F (150 - 200 degrees C)
Existing PAFCs have outputs up to 200 kW, and 1 MW units
have been tested
One of the main advantages to this type of fuel cell is that it
can use impure hydrogen as fuel. PAFCs can tolerate a CO
concentration of about 1.5 percent, which broadens the choice
of fuels they can use. If gasoline is used, the sulfur must be
removed.
PAFCs are the most mature fuel cell technology.

DG Technologies
Fuel Cell
Phosphoric Acid (PAFC)
Disadvantages of PAFCs include: it uses expensive platinum
as a catalyst, it generates low current and power comparably to
other types of fuel cells, and it generally has a large size and
weight.

DG Technologies
Fuel Cell
Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM)
These cells operate at relatively low temperatures (about 175
degrees F or 80 degrees C), have high power density, can vary
their output quickly to meet shifts in power demand, and are
suited for applications, -- such as in automobiles -- where
quick startup is required.
According to DOE, "they are the primary candidates for lightduty vehicles, for buildings, and potentially for much smaller
applications such as replacements for rechargeable batteries.
This type of fuel cell is sensitive to fuel impurities.
Cell outputs generally range from 50 to 250 kW.

DG Technologies
Fuel Cell
Molten Carbonate (MCFC)
These fuel cells use a liquid solution of lithium, sodium and/or
potassium carbonates, soaked in a matrix for an electrolyte.
They promise high fuel-to-electricity efficiencies, about 60%
normally or 85% with cogeneration, and operate at about 1,200
degrees F or 650 degrees C.
To date, MCFCs have been operated on hydrogen, carbon
monoxide, natural gas, propane, landfill gas, marine diesel, and
simulated coal gasification products.
10 kW to 2 MW MCFCs have been tested on a variety of fuels
and are primarily targeted to electric utility applications.
A disadvantage to this, however, is that high temperatures
enhance corrosion and the breakdown of cell components.

DG Technologies
Fuel Cell
Solid Oxide (SOFC)
This type could be used in big, high-power applications
including industrial and large-scale central electricity
generating stations.
Some developers also see SOFC use in motor vehicles and are
developing fuel cell auxiliary power units (APUs) with
SOFCs.
A solid oxide system usually uses a hard ceramic material of
solid zirconium oxide and a small amount of ytrria, instead of
a liquid electrolyte, allowing operating temperatures to reach
1,800 degrees F or 1000 degrees C.
Power generating efficiencies could reach 60% and 85% with
cogeneration and cell output is up to 100 kW.

DG Technologies
Fuel Cell
Alkaline
Long used by NASA on space missions, these cells can
achieve power generating efficiencies of up to 70 percent.
They were used on the Apollo spacecraft to provide both
electricity and drinking water.
Their operating temperature is 150 to 200 degrees C (about
300 to 400 degrees F).
They typically have a cell output from 300 watts to 5 kW.

DG Technologies
Fuel Cell
Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFC)
These cells are similar to the PEM cells in that they both use a
polymer membrane as the electrolyte. However, in the DMFC,
the anode catalyst itself draws the hydrogen from the liquid
methanol, eliminating the need for a fuel reformer.
Efficiencies of about 40% are expected with this type of fuel
cell, which would typically operate at a temperature between
120-190 degrees F or 50 -100 degrees C.
This is a relatively low range, making this fuel cell attractive
for tiny to mid-sized applications, to power cellular phones
and laptops.

DG Technologies
Fuel Cell
Regenerative Fuel Cells
Still a very young member of the fuel cell family, regenerative
fuel cells would be attractive as a closed-loop form of power
generation.
Water is separated into hydrogen and oxygen by a solarpowered electrolyser. The hydrogen and oxygen are fed into
the fuel cell which generates electricity, heat and water. The
water is then recirculated back to the solar-powered
electrolyser and the process begins again.
These types of fuel cells are currently being researched by
NASA and others worldwide.

DG Technologies
Fuel Cell
Zinc-Air Fuel Cells (ZAFC)
In a typical zinc/air fuel cell, there is a gas diffusion electrode
(GDE), a zinc anode separated by electrolyte, and some form
of mechanical separators.
The GDE is a permeable membrane that allows atmospheric
oxygen to pass through. After the oxygen has converted into
hydroxyl ions and water, the hydroxyl ions will travel through
an electrolyte, and reaches the zinc anode. Here, it reacts with
the zinc, and forms zinc oxide. This process creates an
electrical potential.

DG Technologies
Fuel Cell
Protonic Ceramic Fuel Cell (PCFC)
This new type of fuel cell is based on a ceramic electrolyte
material that exhibits high protonic conductivity at elevated
temperatures.
PCFCs share the thermal and kinetic advantages of high
temperature operation at 700 degrees Celsius with molten
carbonate and solid oxide fuel cells, while exhibiting all of the
intrinsic benefits of proton conduction in polymer electrolyte
and phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFCs).
The high operating temperature is necessary to achieve very
high electrical fuel efficiency with hydrocarbon fuels. PCFCs
can operate at high temperatures and electrochemically oxidize
fossil fuels directly to the anode. This eliminates the
intermediate step of producing hydrogen through the costly
reforming process. .

DG Technologies
Wind Generation

DG Technologies
Photovoltaic

Interface to the Utility System


Synchronous Machine
Asynchronous Machine
Electronic Power Inverters

Power Quality Issues


Sustained Interruptions
Voltage Regulation
Voltage Ride Through
Harmonics
Voltage Sags
Load Following
Power Variation
Misfiring of Reciprocating Engines

Power Quality Issues


Voltage Support and Ride Through

Power Quality Issues


Voltage Support and Ride Through

Power Quality Issues


Helping on Voltage Sags

Operating Conflicts
Utility Fault-Clearing Requirements

Operating Conflicts
Reclosing
DG Must Disconnect Early in the Reclose Interval to
Allow Time for the Arc to Dissipate.
Reclosing on DG, Particularly Those System Using
Rotating Machine Technologies, Can Cause Damage to
the Generator or Prime Mover.

Operating Conflicts
Reclosing

Operating Conflicts
Interference With Relay
Reduction of Reach

Operating Conflicts
Interference With Relay
Sympathetic Tripping of Feeder Breaker

Operating Conflicts
Interference With Relay
Defeat of Fuse Saving

Operating Conflicts
Voltage Regulation Issues

Operating Conflicts
Voltage Drops Along the Feeder if the DG is

Interrupted (Determine the Max. Capacity of DG)

Operating Conflicts
Excess DG Can Fool Reverse Power Setting on

Line Voltage Regulator

Operating Conflicts
Varying DG Output can Cause Excess Duty on

Utility Voltage Regulation Equipment

Operating Conflicts
Harmonics

Operating Conflicts
Islanding
DG
Main Utility Grid

Operating Conflicts
Ferroresonance

Operating Conflicts
Shunt Capacitor Interaction (Overvoltage due to

capacitor)

Operating Conflicts
Transformer Connections
Grounded Y-Y Connection

No Phase Shift
Less Concern for Ferroresonance
Allow DG to Feed All Types of Faults on the Utility System
Back Feed of the Triplen Harmonic
Should Insert Ground Impedance to Limit the Current

Operating Conflicts
Transformer Connections
-Y Connection

Operating Conflicts
Transformer Connection
Delta-Delta Connection

Operating Conflicts
Transformer Connection
Grounded Y- Connection

DG on Low-Voltage
Distribution Networks
Spot Network Arrangement

DG on Low-Voltage
Distribution Networks
Spot Network Arrangement

NPR
NPR
NPR
NPR
NPR

Underground Network

NPR
NPR

DG on Low-Voltage
Distribution Networks
Arrangement of Network Protector Relay

Network
Protector

Source
Network
Transformer

Network

DG on Low-Voltage
Distribution Networks
A Microcomputer Based Network Protector Relay

DG on Low-Voltage
Distribution Networks
Operation of A Microcomputer Based Network

Protector Relay
Network protector relays are used to monitor and
control the power flow of low voltage AC to secondary
network systems
The purpose of the network protector is to prevent the
system from backfeeding and initiate automatic
reclosing when the system returns to normal

DG on Low-Voltage
Distribution Networks
Tripping Characteristics of A Microcomputer

Based Network Protector Relay


90

Fault
Current
Tripping
Region

180

Non-Tripping
Region
Current into
Network
(Unity PF)

Max. Torque

0
Network
Phase Voltage

Current out of
Network
(Unity PF)

Current into
Network
(Lagging PF)

Tripping
Region
270

Non-Tripping
Region

DG on Low-Voltage
Distribution Networks
Reclosing Characteristics of A Microcomputer

Based Network Protector Relay


Master Relay
Characteristic
Reclosed
Region
Phase Relay
Offset Voltage
0o
1V
2V
3V
4V
5V
6V
7V
8V

Phase Relay
Characteristic

DG on Low-Voltage
Distribution Networks
Network Primary Feeder Fault

DG on Low-Voltage
Distribution Networks
Fault Current Contribution From Synchronous

Local DG

DG on Low-Voltage
Distribution Networks
Inverter Based DG on a Spot Network (Possible

Solution)

DG on Low-Voltage
Distribution Networks
Adjustable Reverse Power Characteristics

Siting DG
DG to Relieve Feeder Overload

Siting DG
DG to Increase Feeder Capacity

Siting DG
DG to Provide Voltage Support & Reconfiguration

Interconnection of DG
Typical Voltage and Frequency Relay Setting for

DG Interconnection for a 60 Hz System

Interconnection of DG
Simple Interconnection Protection Scheme for

Small DG

Interconnection of DG
Interconnection Scheme

for Large Synchronous


DG