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Methods of Research

Thesis

UM Research Center

Chapter 1 ORIENTATION
Topics
Guidelines in the Conduct of
Undergraduate Thesis/Research.

Objectives
Discuss the guidelines and
procedure in the conduct of
undergraduate research/thesis.

The following guidelines shall apply in


the conduct of undergraduate thesis
The Title Proposal
1. A student research group shall consist of
three members who shall select a
research topic. The group shall submit a
title proposal using the prescribed format.
A research topic shall be in accordance
with the research priority areas of the
College.

2. Upon approval of title, the students may


write the research outline proposal.
3. The adviser and other research
personnel shall then be identified/chosen
for the research study. All research
personnel must possess qualifications
enumerated in the UM Research Manual.

The Outline Proposal


1. The students shall submit the research
outline of approved title written in the
prescribed format.
2. The thesis adviser shall review the
academic soundness, departmental
compatibility and appropriateness of the
research proposal before submission.

3. The thesis instructor shall schedule the


outline defense before a panel of three
faculty members chosen based on their
field of training and interest.
4. The research study shall only be
conducted after approval of the outline by
the defense panel.

Conduct of Study
1. Each research group shall be required
to enter all data and activities in a record
book which is to be submitted to the
thesis instructor during the final defense.
The instructors shall have the right to
inspect this record book from time to
time. Each entry in the record book shall
contain the following:

Elements in Record Book

Date:
Activity:
By Whom:
Place:
Results:
Signature of Adviser:

2. The thesis adviser shall be consulted


for any change/modification in the
methodology or for any incident that
may affect the study. The thesis
instructor shall also be informed of
the same.

The Final Defense


1. Oral defense will be conducted at least a
month before the end of the semester. The
thesis instructor shall arrange the schedule of
said defense.
2. The students shall submit three (3) copies of
the manuscript to the thesis instructor one
week before the scheduled defense, for
distribution to the panel members. The
thesis manuscript shall be endorsed by the
thesis adviser and certified by the editor.

The Thesis Report


1. The research students shall revise/improve
the report based on the recommendations
and suggestions of the defense panel.
2. The final thesis report shall be submitted to
the thesis adviser for endorsement.
3. The students shall accomplish the Approval
Sheet.
4. The students shall submit six(6) bound
copies of the final thesis report to the thesis
instructor.

Research Fees
Each research group shall consist of at least
three members each. Fees collected per
group (P2700) shall be used as used as
follows:

1 adviser P 1000
1 grammarian
500
1 statistician ..
500
2 panel members @ P200 each ..... 400
3 validators @ P100 each ...... 300

Note:
Your professor will release your
grade only after receiving a copy
of your duly approved manuscript.

END

Chapter 2

NATURE OF RESEARCH

Topics
Research
Characteristics of Research
Types of Research
The Research Process

Objectives
Define research.
Discuss the characteristics of research.
Differentiate the types of research.
Discuss the steps in conducting a
research.

Definition of Research
Research is a purposive, systematic and
scientific process of gathering, analyzing,
classifying, organizing, presenting and
interpreting data for the solution of a problem,
for prediction, for invention, for the discovery
of truth, or for the expansion or verification of
existing knowledge, all for the preservation
and improvement of the quality of life.
(Calderon, 1993)

Characteristics of Research
1. Empirical
Research is based on direct
experience or observation by the
researcher. The collection of data
relies on practical experience
without benefit of the scientific
knowledge or theory.

2. Logical
Research is based on valid
procedures and principles. Scientific
investigation is done in an orderly
and accurate manner so the
researcher can draw valid
conclusions based on actual
evidence.

3. Cyclical
Research starts with a problem and
ends with a problem. From the
recommendations of a completed
research, other problems crop up as
subjects for further study. Hence,
research is a cyclical process.

4. Analytical
Research utilizes proven analytical
procedures in gathering data and in
analyzing them so that there is no
error in their interpretation.

5. Replicability
Research designs and procedures
are replicated to arrive at valid and
conclusive results. The more
replications, the more valid and
conclusive the results would be.

6. Critical
Research exhibits careful and
precise judgment. Data are treated
statistically at a higher level of
confidence to determine its
significance or usefulness.

7. Objective and Ethical


There should be no bias or partiality
in treating the results and no effort is
made to alter them. Integrity in
research is must. Ethical rules must
be observed.

Types of Research
1. Basic or Pure Research
2. Applied Research
3. Action Research

Basic or Pure Research is


conducted primarily to test or
arrive at a theory. Its main
objective is to add to the body of
scientific knowledge by exploring
the unknown and discover new
facts without any particular
thought as to its immediate and
practical application.

Applied Research involves


seeking new applications of
scientific knowledge to the
solution of a problem, such as
the development of new device,
or new method. It is conducted for
the purpose of applying, or testing
theory, and evaluating its
usefulness.

Action Research is a feature of applied


research which involves discovering and
identifying a problem in the local setting
and solving it in the same setting but
without intention of generalizing its
results. It is a decision-oriented research
involving the application of scientific
method in response to an immediate
need to improve existing practices.

The Research Process


Problem

Data Processing

Analysis and
Interpretation of
Data

Theoretical/
Conceptual
Framework

Data Collection

Drawing of
Conclusions

Review of Related
Literature

Method and
Materials

Making
Recommendations

Chapter 3 THE RESEARCH PROBLEM


Topics
Identification of the Problem
Characteristics of a Research Problem
Guidelines in the Selection of a
Research Topic
The Title Proposal

Objectives
Give the conditions for the existence of a
research problem.
Explain the five criteria of a good
research problem.
Discuss the sources of research problems.
Be familiar with the guidelines in the
selection of a research problem.
Submit a title proposal.

Identification of the Problem


A problem exists if:
1. there is absence of information
resulting in a gap in our
knowledge
2. there are contradictory results
3. a fact exists and you intend to
make your study explain

Characteristics of a Research Problem

S peci The problem should be specifically stated.


fic
It is easy to measure by using research
M easura instruments in collecting data.
A

ble
Data are attainable using correct
chievable
statistical techniques to arrive at
precise results.

R ealisticThe problem is rational and real


results are not manipulated.

Time frame is required in every activity.


ime-bound.
The shorter the completion, the better.

Sources of Research Problems


1. Personal Experience
There are a lot of happenings in the
world for a person not to notice.
What is required of a would be
researcher is the keenness and
sensitivity to what is occurring
around him.

2. Practical Problems
Research may be stimulated by
problems of existing practices and
needs that require immediate solution.

2. Practical Problems
Research may be stimulated by
problems of existing practices and
needs that require immediate solution.

3. Research Journals, Theses,


Dissertations
From any of these sources an
investigator can draw research issues
or problems which require a scientific
study.

4. Conferences, symposia, dialogues,


meetings
In any of these activities, it is likely
that problems related to the theme or
advocacy of the gathering are
discussed.

5. List of research priorities of


government agencies, NGOs,
industry and private foundations.
Research priority areas of these
groups are usually published in the
internet.

Research Agenda for Engineering


Environment studies
Policy issues and instructional development
for engineering education
Engineering technology studies
Energy

Guidelines in the Selection


of a Research Problem
The research problem or topic must be
chosen by the researcher himself.
It must be within the interest of the
researcher.
It must be within the specialization of the
researcher.
It must be within the competence of the
researcher to tackle.

It must be within the ability of the


researcher to finance.
It must be researchable and
manageable, that is,
Data are available and accessible.
The data must meet the standards of accuracy,
objectivity, and verifiability.
Answers to the specific questions can be found.
The hypotheses formulated are testable, that is,
they can be accepted or rejected.

Equipment and instruments for research are


available and can give valid and reliable data.
It can be completed in a reasonable period of
time.
It is significant, important, and relevant to the
present time and situation (timely and of current
interest).
The results are practical and implementable.
It requires original, critical, and reflective
thinking to solve it.

It can be delimited to suit the resources of the


researcher but big enough to be able to give
significant, valid and reliable results and
generalizations.
It must contribute to the fund of human
knowledge, to the national development goals for
the improvement of the quality of human life.
It must not undermine the moral and spiritual
values of the people.
There must be a consideration of the hazards
involved, either physical, social or legal.

Parts of a Title Proposal


1. Research Title
2. Proponents
3. Description of the Project
Rationale
Objectives of the Study
Conceptual Framework
Methodology

4. Research Project Duration


5. Approximate Budget

The Research Title


a brief descriptive label (10-15 words)
names the major variables that are the
subject of investigation
answers the questions of what, who, and
where
eye-catching and thought-provoking

Proponents
list of thesis group members

Rationale
This section gives the basis, motivation
and justification of the study. It
discusses the reasons why the study
should be undertaken.

Objectives of the Study


The general objective is a statement of the
over-all purpose of the study and is
generally expressed in a declarative
statement that is more or less
consistent with the title of the study.

The general objective is followed by the


specific objectives/problems that are clearly
based on the components of the broad
problem. They may be stated in declarative
or interrogative form.
Each specific objective/question is
researchable and can be interpreted apart
from the other objectives/questions.

Answers to these objectives/questions must


contribute to the development of the whole
research problem. Specific objectives must
add to the totality of the research problem.
They must be stated in clear, concise, and
measurable terms. Its number should be
enough to cover the whole development of
the study.

The specific objectives must not exceed


the coverage of the main problem.
Neither can the specific objectives
exclude significant areas of the main
problem.

Conceptual Framework
This section presents the concept upon which
the study is based.
It is followed by a schematic diagram
illustrating the relationship of the variables
being studied. The diagram shows the
dependent variables, independent
variables and moderator variables(if any).

Independent
Variable

Dependent
Variable

Moderator Variable

Methodology
This part briefly describes the type of
research method to be used, the method of
collecting data, research instruments,
sampling design and statistical treatment.

Research Project Duration


Indicates the approximate period of time to
be spent in conducting the study.

Approximate Budget
Indicates the approximate amount of money
to be spent in conducting the study.

Title Proposal
Format

END

Chapter 4

RESEARCH PROPOSAL

Topics
Parts of a Research Proposal
The Problem and its Setting
Review of Related Literature
Methodology

Objectives
Discuss the contents and
characteristics of the different parts
of a research proposal.
Submit a research proposal.

3 Parts of a Research Proposal


The Problem and its Setting
Review of Related Literature
Methodology

Components of a Research Proposal


Title Page
Table of Contents
Chapter 1. The Problem and its Setting
Chapter 2. Review of Related Literature
Chapter 3. Methodology
Additional Parts

Title Page
The title page presents the title, the kind of
research work, the faculty to be submitted to;
the name of school; the submission
statement; the degree granted; full name of
the researcher; month and year in which the
degree is to be (or was) granted. The title is
written in all capital letters in an inverted
pyramid style.

THE EFFECT OF INTERMITTENT HIGH


TEMPERATURE IN IN-SHELL DRYING
OF COCONUTS

A Thesis Proposal

Sample
Title Page

Submitted to
The Faculty of the Chemical Engineering Department
University of Mindanao

In Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree
Bachelor of Science in Chemical Engineering

BACK

Submitted by
Voltaire S. Templa
October 2002

Table of Contents
This is a list of all elements in the
research paper chapter titles, the main
heading and subheadings in the text,
bibliography and appendix. The
numbering of chapters, wording and
punctuation must be exactly similar as
they appear in the text.

Tables. The list of tables should follow the


table of contents. If there are only two or
three tables in the text of the research
paper, this page may be omitted. All
captions should appear exactly the same
in the listing.

Figures. The list of figures follows the list


of tables. List of Figures is omitted if there
are only two or three figures in the text. All
captions should appear exactly the same
in the listing. Flowcharts, graphs,
paradigms, charts, drawings, maps, and
diagrams are usually grouped as figures.

CONTENTS
Page

Sample
Table of
Contents

ACKNOLEDGMENTS
iii
TABLES

vii

FIGURES

xi

CHAPTER
1

20

THE PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING

Background of the Study

Statement of the Problem

Theoretical Framework

Scope and Limitations of the Study

Significance of the Study

Definition of Terms

10

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

12

METHODOLOGY
Research Design

20

Subjects/Participants

21

Research Instruments

22

Research Procedure

24

Statistical Tools

29

BIBLIOGRAPHY
33
SCHEDULE OF ACTIVITIES

36

PROPOSED BUDGET

38

LIST OF TABLES
Page
TABLE

Sample
List of
Tables

Distribution of UM Students by Program

Distribution of UM Faculty by Program

Mean Performance Ratings of UM Faculty

Mean Values of the Level of Satisfaction

45
52

of UM Students on Faculty
Performance
60

40

LIST OF FIGURES
Page
FIGURE

Sample
List of
Figures

Conceptual Paradigm of the Study

Flowchart of the Preparation of Cheese


from Coconut Milk

25
3

Mean Score on the Color Acceptability


of Cheese from Coconut Milk

42
4

Mean Score on the Flavor Acceptability


of Cheese from Coconut Milk

57

BACK

Chapter 1.

THE PROBLEM

1.1 Background of the Study


1.2 Statement of the Problem
1.3 Theoretical Framework
1.4 Scope and Limitations of the Study
1.5 Significance of the Study
1.6 Definition of Terms

1.1. Background of the Study


This refers to the overview of the study
discussing the factors that lead to the
conceptualization of the problem. It
should indicate the importance and validity
of the particular problem. It must point out
that the problem has not been fully studied
or that its study would make a useful
contribution.

Guidelines in the Writing the Background of


the Study
This section should contain a discussion
of any or all of the following:
Presentation of the Problem. Tells what the
problem is all about and indicates what will be
covered by the study.
The existence of a problem. Discusses the
existing unsatisfactory condition that needs a
solution.

Rationale of the Study. Talks about the reason or


reasons why it is necessary to conduct the study
to discover or solve something; to find a better way
of doing something or improving a product; to
have a deeper and clearer understanding of a
situation, circumstance, or phenomenon
Historical Background of the problem. Gives a
birds eye view of the backdrop of the problem by
citing published materials relevant to the study.

BACK

1.2. Statement of the Problem


There should be a general statement of
the whole problem followed by specific
questions or sub-problems into which
the general problem is broken up.
The research problem subsumes two
important pieces of information: the
study content and the precise objectives
of the investigation.

This implies that a researcher cannot


effectively carry out a study unless he has
a purpose and knows what to look for
during the investigation. To define a
problem means to specify it in greater
detail to focus on its main objective. This
focusing provides a clear direction to the
research activity.

The statement of the problem should


identify, if possible, all the variables, and
what questions about these variables does
the research seek to answer.

Sample Statement Of the Problem

Assumptions and Hypotheses


Historical and descriptive investigations
do not need explicit hypotheses and
assumptions. Only experimental studies
need expressly written assumptions and
hypotheses.

Assumptions are presumed to be true


statements of facts related to the
research problem. They are clearly
stated as a foundation to form
conclusions. It is advisable that
evidences or arguments in support of
these assumptions are presented. Not
all studies have a section on
assumptions because some of these
are already included in the background
of the study.

A hypothesis is a tentative and educated


guess that is formulated and temporarily
adopted to explain or answer specific
questions of the study. It is important for
it tells the researcher what to do and
how to go about solving the problem.

Types of Hypothesis
Null Hypothesis (HO) is a denial of an
existence of an attribute, a relationship
or a difference of an effect. It is always
stated in the negative form.
Alternative Hypothesis (HA) is the
opposite extreme of the HO and is
always stated in the positive form. It is
an affirmation of the existence of an
observed phenomenon.
BACK

1.3. Theoretical/Conceptual Framework


This component expounds on the theory,
indicator, and variables that led to the
evolvement of the research problem and
its corresponding hypotheses. Its narrative
text is supported by a schematic diagram
that graphically portrays the theories and
concepts involved.

Theoretical Framework is a symbolic


construction which uses abstract concepts,
facts or laws, variables and their relations
that explains and predicts how an observed
phenomenon exists and operates.

Conceptual Framework presents specific


and well-defined concepts called constructs
that are derived from abstract concepts of
the theoretical framework.

Level

Theoretical

Conceptual

Independent
Variable

River Qualities

Color, odor,
temperature, pH,
turbidity, DO, BOD

Moderator
Variable

Sampling conditions

Time of Sampling,
Sampling site

Dependent
Variable

Health of River

River classification

Paradigm is a diagrammatic representation


of a framework. It depicts in a more vivid
way what the framework wants to convey.
RIVER QUALITIES

RIVER CLASSIFICATION

Color, odor, temperature,


pH, turbidity, DO, BOD

Standard A-Quality
Standard B-Quality

SAMPLING CONDITIONS

Time

Location

Selection and Control of Variables


Variables are plain information to which
are attached certain meanings or symbols.
Independent variables should be
controlled so that the interference of other
variables will be minimized or avoided.

In other words, the variables that could


affect the independent variables should be
held constant. In the case of dependent
variable, one should be sure that it has
been caused by the independent variable.

Types of Variables
1. Independent Variable
It is a variable which is measured,
manipulated or selected by the
researcher to determine its relationship
to an observed phenomenon; it is the
stimulus variable.

Independent variables may be called


actors. They are either discrete or
continuous. Discrete variables should be
classified, categorized and labeled into
classes. Continuous variables should be
stated in numerical terms indicating its
degree(level).

2. Dependent Variable
This is the variable which is observed and
measured to determine the effect of the
independent variable; it is the response
variable. It is the variable which that
appears, disappears, or varies as the
researcher introduces, removes or varies
the independent variable.

3. Moderator Variable
The moderator variable is a type of
independent variable which is measured,
manipulated or selected by the researcher
to discover whether it modifies the
relationship of the independent variable to
the observed phenomenon.

4. Control Variable
The control variable is a a variable which
is controlled by the researcher to cancel
out or neutralize any effect that might
otherwise have on the observed
phenomenon.

5. Intervening Variable
This a factor which theoretically affects
the observed phenomenon but cannot be
seen, measured or manipulated. Its
effects must be inferred from the effects
of the independent and moderator
variables on the observed phenomenon.

BACK

1.4. Scope and Limitations of the Study


This section sets the precise limits of the
problem area what the researcher will
include and what he will not include. This
should discuss the weaknesses of the
study which are beyond the control of the
researcher.

The limitations of the study can be in


terms of the subject and location
coverage of the investigation, including
the reasons for such limitations. Other
coverage of the limitations are
program/project components and time
span, including availability of time and
resources.

BACK

1.5. Significance of the Study


A short paragraph explaining why the
research is important and what possible
effects the results of the study will have on
present conditions. In writing this part, one
basic question has to be answered: Of
what use will be the findings of the study?

It should specify who or what agency/


organization will benefit from the findings
of the study and in what way will they
benefit.
By setting forth the significance of the
study, the researcher provides a
convincing rationale for justifying the
research problem.

BACK

1.6. Definition of Terms


It is useful to provide brief operational
definitions of the variables It is not
necessary to operationally define all
terms, just the principal variables.

Two ways of Defining Terms


Conceptual Definitions. The terms are
defined based on concepts rather than
observable ones and are usually taken
from the dictionary, encyclopedia or
books.

Operational Definitions. The terms are


defined based on observable characteristics
and how it is used in the study.
BACK

Chapter 2. REVIEW OF RELATED


LITERATURE
This refers to the body of literature related
to the study being proposed or a
discussion on how the research proposal
is related with current researches in the
field. This is a list of previous studies and
researches made which have some
relationship with the present problem.

Included may be some professional


literature or monographs written about the
subject area under investigation. A brief
annotation under each of these related
literature explaining the relevance of the
said materials to the present study is in
order.

Use and Citation of Literature

Review of Related Literature


The review of related literature involves
the systematic identification, location and
analysis of documents containing
information related to the research
problem.

Sources
articles, abstracts, reviews,
monographs, dissertations, books,
research reports and electronic media.

Purposes of the Review of Literature


To place the topic in a historical concept.
To provide for the assessment of previous
studies.
To justify selection of the topic.
To provide the theoretical framework.
To assist the researcher in making his
research design.
To facilitate interpretation of the results of the
study.

Characteristics of Related Literature


The materials must be as recent as possible.
Materials must be as objective and unbiased
as possible.
Materials must be relevant to the study.
Materials must not be too few nor too many.

Approaches in Presenting Reviewed


Literature
Chronological approach
Literature is presented according to the time
they were written, that is following the timesequence pattern.
Type of literature approach
Literature is classified into two categories
research and conceptual.

Findings, theme, or topic approach


Literature is classified according to
similarity of findings, theme or topic.
Country approach
Literature is classified by country, or into
local and foreign studies categories.

Writing the Literature Review


Sections of the Review
Introduction
Summary of articles
Conclusion

Introduction
Always begin with an introduction. Introduce
your topic and briefly explain why this is a
significant or important area for study.

Summary of Articles
For each study, briefly explain the purpose,
how it was conducted and the major findings.
Include a transition paragraph from one
subtopic to the next.
Present your knowledge on the topics.
Cite your sources. Use direct quotations
infrequently.

Example
Calvin and Brommel (1996) believe family
communication . . .
OR
Communication serves two primary functions
in families--cohesion and adaptability (Galvin
and Brommel, 1996).

Conclusion
Briefly summarize the major findings of the
studies chosen. Comments about what
questions need to still be answered may be
included.

BACK

Chapter 3. METHODOLOGY
This section includes information on the
research design to be used, the
techniques to be utilized in gathering
and analyzing data, the type of data
needed to test the hypothesis.
Statistical techniques in analyzing the
data are also included.

This section may contain the following


subtopics:
Research Design
Sample size, sampling design and technique
Subjects/participants
Research Instruments
Research Procedure
Statistical Treatment

Research Designs
Historical Research
Descriptive Research
Experimental Research
Ex-Post Facto Research
Participatory Research

Historical Research
Historical research interprets past
trends of attitude, event and fact. It is
regarded as much more than just a
chronicle of the impressive events of the
past; its data must find applicability to
contemporary issues and problems.

Descriptive Research
Descriptive research involves the
collection of data in order to test
hypotheses or to answer questions
concerning the present status of the
subject of the study.

Types of Descriptive Researches


1. Case Studies
Case studies involve studying one person
or just a few persons over a considerable
period of time. This entails discovering
and studying all the important variables
which have contributed to the history of
the subject.

2. Surveys
Surveys involve getting information
involving a relatively large number of
cases. It measures existing
phenomenon without inquiring why it
exists.

3. Developmental Study
Developmental study uses longitudinal and
cross-sectional methods. The longitudinal
method studies the same sample
participants over an extended period of time
while the cross-sectional method studies
participants of various characteristics at the
same point in time.

4. Flow-up Study
A follow-up study is employed when one
intends to investigate the subsequent
development of participants after a
specified treatment or condition.

5. Documentary Analysis
Documentary analysis involves
gathering data by examining records
and documents.

6. Trend Analysis
Trend analysis involves studies that
seek future status. It is employed in
studies which aim to project the
demands or needs of the people in the
future.

7. Correlational Studies
Correlational studies are designed to
determine the extent to which different
variables are related to each other in
the population of interest.

Experimental Research
Experimental research has to do with
controlled observation of change and
development in which the researcher
manipulates at least one variable
(independent variable), controls other
relevant variables, and observes the
effect on one or more dependent
variables.

Ex Post Facto (Causal-Comparative)


Research
Ex post facto research investigates a
problem by studying the variables in
retrospect. The researcher attempts to
determine the cause, or reason, for
existing differences in the behavior of the
subjects under study.

Inferences about relations among


variables are made, without direct
intervention from concomitant variation of
independent and dependent variables.

Participatory Research
Participatory research is peopleoriented and focuses on the involvement
of everyone touched by the problem from
the planning stage to the implementation
and evaluation of solutions.

Classification of Research
According to Findings
1. Qualitative Research
involves interpretative findings
2. Quantitative Research
involves statistical findings

Research Design
The method of research used should be
explained briefly. The procedural part of
the method, its appropriateness to the
study, and some of its advantages
should also be discussed.

BACK

Sample Size, Sampling Design and Technique


The researcher must explain very clearly
how he collected his sample. He must
show that his sample is representative of
the population by showing that he used
the appropriate technique of sampling
whether pure random sampling,
systematic random sampling, stratified
random sampling, cluster sampling, or a
combination.

This is very important because if sampling


is faulty, his findings and conclusions will
not be valid nor reliable.

The size of the sample used in the study


must be justified.

BACK

Subjects/Participants
This section is labeled as subjects or participants
depending on whether animals or humans are
used in the study.
Indicate who participated in the study, how many,
and how were they selected. With human subjects,
be sure to address the issue of informed consent.
Include any details which are relevant to the study.
For humans, include the demographic
characteristics.
BACK

Research Instruments
For descriptive research, the
questionnaire, test, interview,
observation schedule, checklist, or
rating scale may be described here.
How the validity and reliability of these
instruments were tested must also be
explained.

For experimental research, describe


what pieces of apparatus or equipment
were used and how they functioned in
the study. Also enumerate the actual
materials used in the study.

BACK

Research Procedure
For descriptive research, the
researcher must explain his data
gathering and processing procedures.
For experimental research, the
researcher must describe the
procedure used in the laboratory or
field.
BACK

Statistical Treatment
The statistical tools used to answer the
research questions may be described
here and the formula may be
explained. The level of probability may
be stated to determine the degree of
significance of the findings.

Considerations in the choice of


statistical treatment:
1. The statistical test to be used must be
appropriate.
2. The choice of a statistical test is
dictated by the questions for which the
research is designed, and the level,
distribution, and dispersion of data.

3. Other considerations include the extent


of your knowledge of statistics and the
availability of resources in connection
with the computation and interpretation
of data.

General Types of Statistical Tests


Parametric Tests
used for data that are of the interval or
ratio levels of measurements. In addition,
the within group scatter of scores of each
of the groups to be compared should be
equal, and that the population distributions
from where the samples were obtained
must be normal.

Nonparametric Tests
are called distribution-free statistics since
their uses do not always depend on some
specific type of score distribution like the
normal curve.

Examples of Statistical Tests


1. The Ztest of one sample mean is used
to determine if an obtained sample
mean or average of scores or values is
but a random sample from a population
with a given or hypothesized or
expected population mean.

2. The ttest for independent sample means is


used to determine if an observed
difference between the averages of two
independent groups is statistically
significant.
3. The ttest for dependent sample means is
used to determine if there is a
significant difference between two
groups of correlated scores in terms of
their means.

4. The oneway analysis of variance is used


in order to determine if there are
differences among means of three or
more groups. When a significant value
yielded by the analysis of variance
test(also called F value) occurs, there is
need to do a posteriori test in order to
determine which means are different.

5. The twoway analysis of variance, also


called a factorial analysis of variance, is
employed in order to determine the main
and interaction effects of two
independent factors.
6. The Pearson Product Moment Correlation
is employed when there are two sets of
scores and you would like to determine
if the two sets are correlated.

7. The chi-square goodness-of-fit test tells if


an observed frequency distribution on a
variable differs significantly from an
expected or theoretical distribution of
frequencies. The computation calls for
data on either the nominal or ordinal
level.
8. The chi-square test of association is used to
determine whether or not two variables
are associated with each other.

9. Kendalls Coefficient of Concordance is used to


determine the degree of agreement or
concordance among subgroups in ranking a
number of sets of items or aspects on the
variables of interest.
10. Spearman rho is a test of correlation that is
used when the values of both the X and Y
variables are ordinal or rank ordered.

BACK

Other Parts
Timetable
List down, in outline form, the steps to
be done in undertaking the research
and indicate opposite each step the
approximate period of time to be spent
in each phase of the study.

Working Bibliography
This consists of publications which have
been consulted prior to making the
outline. It may also include titles which
are intended to be consulted further.

How to list the bibliography


using APA Style

Book
Mitchell, T. R., & Larson, J. R. (1987). People in organizations:
an introduction to organizational behavior (3rd ed.) New
York: McGraw hill.

Group Author (government agency)


as publisher
Australian Bureau of Statistics. (1991). Estimated resident
population by age and sex in statistical local areas. New South
Wales, June 1990 (No. 3209.1). Canberra, Australian Capital
Territory: Author.

Book, no author or editor


Merriam-Websters collegiate dictionary (10th ed.). (1993).
Springfield, MA: Merriam Webster.

Article or chapter in an edited book


Bjork, R. A. (1989). Retrieval inhibition as an adaptive
mechanism in human memory. In H. L. Roediger 111 &
F.I.M.
Craik (Eds), Varieties of memory and
consciousness (pp.
309-330). Hillslade, NJ: Erlbaum.

Journal article
Saywitz, K. J., & Mannarino, A. P. (2000). Treatment for sexually
abused children and adolescents. American Psychologist,
55, 1040-1049.

Newspaper article
Schwartz, J. (1993, September 30). Obesity affects economic,
social status. The Washington Post, pp. A1, A4.

Unpublished thesis
Almeida, D. M. (1990). Fathers participation in family work.
Consciousness for fathers stress and father-child
relations. Unpublished masters thesis, University of
Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada.

Internet
VandenBos, G., & Doe, J. (2001). Role of reference elements in
the selection of resources by psychology undergraduates.
Journal of Bibliographic Research. 5, 117-123. Retrival
October 13, 2001, from http://jbr.org/articles.html
University of California, San Francisco, Institute for Health and
Aging. (1996, November). Chronic care in America: A
21st century challenge. Retrieval September 9, 2000, from
the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Web site:
http://
www.rwjf.org/library/chcare/

Proposed Budget
List down proposed budget for expected
expenses.

Reminders:
Type using double space
Use 8.5 x 11 bond paper
Use 1 upper, right, and lower margins
Use 1.5 left margin
Page no. is placed at upper right hand
corner of page.

END

Chapter 5

RESEARCH REPORT

Topics
The Research Report

Objectives
Discuss the contents and
characteristics of the different parts of
a research report.
Submit a research report.

Components of a Research Report


The Preliminaries
The Thesis Text
Bibliography
Appendix

The Preliminaries
A widely accepted format in the writing of
a thesis is to start with the preliminaries
which usually include the following in their
order:
1. Title Page

4. Table of Contents

2. Approval Sheet

5. List of Tables

3. Acknowledgement

6. List of Figures

The Title Page


Use the same format in the Research
Proposal but change A Thesis
Proposal to A Thesis

BACK

Approval Sheet
This is the second page of a research
paper which is a certification of approval
of the college to which the thesis is
presented. This is signed by the thesis
adviser, members of the panel and dean
of college.

BACK

Acknowledgement
This page is the researchers written
recognition and appreciation for the
assistance and guidance provided by
people who in a way helped the
researcher in bringing his thesis to
completion. Ideally expressed in simple,
sincere and tactful language and limited to
one or two pages. (This page is optional.)

BACK

Table of Contents
This page lists the chapter headings
into which the thesis is divided. It gives
an overview of the material covered by
the thesis.

BACK

List of Tables
This page comes after the Table of
Contents and is made up of the captions
of the tables included by the researcher to
provide substantial evidences to his
presentation. It may include the number of
the table, exact caption or title, and page
number.

BACK

List of Figures
This page is included only if the
researcher used figures such as graphs,
charts and other illustrative materials. It
may include the number of the figure,
exact caption or title, and page number.

BACK

Text of the Thesis


The Problem and its Setting
Review of Related Literature
Methodology
Results and Discussion
Summary, Conclusions and
Recommendations

Review of Related Literature


Same as thesis proposal

The Problem and its Setting


Methodology
Same as thesis proposal but use past
tense

BACK

Results and Discussion


In this section, the data gathered in the study
is presented, analyzed and interpreted.
Presentation of data is the process of
organizing data into logical, sequential, and
meaningful categories and classifications to
make them amenable to study and
interpretation. Data may be presented in 3
ways: textual, tabular and graphical.

Analysis of data suggests putting the data


into proper order and categories. It is the
process of breaking up the whole study into
its constituent parts of categories according
to the specific questions under the statement
of the problem.
Interpretation means making inferences
pertinent to the research relations
investigated in the study.

The purpose of this section is to present


the results, evaluate and interpret them
with respect to the original research
question.
The meaning of each of the significant
findings are discussed. Observed trends,
variable relations, and cause-effect
relationships are explained in terms of the
statistical measures used.

Inconsistent findings are pointed out and


due interpretations are made thereof.
Circumstances which may have affected
the unexpected outcomes of the study are
explained. Limitations which may have
affected the results of the study must be
honestly admitted.

Guidelines in Writing
Results and Discussion
Briefly state the main findings in words. That is,
first give a general description, then go into the
details.
When presenting the results of statistical tests,
give descriptive statistics before the
corresponding inferential statistics. In other
words, give means and/or percentages (perhaps
referring to a table or figure), before talking about
the results of any statistical tests you performed.

When presenting nominal or ordinal data, give


the percents rather than frequencies (since
percents are independent of the sample size).
When actually presenting the results, try to
emphasize the meaning of the statistics. That
is, clearly describe what it is you are testing
and what significance means for the variables
involved.

If you are presenting a lot of material here,


you may wish to employ subheadings (as is
done in the methods section). These
subheadings should have meaning and
relevance to the data and should help to
organize your presentation of it.
In cases where the reader would expect
something to be significant and it is not,
you should address the issue.

It is also important to discuss how the


results relate to the literature you cited in
the introduction. In other words, emphasize
any theoretical consequences of the
results.
You might (or might not) also mention any
limitations of the study and any suggestions
for future research in this section.

BACK

Summary, Conclusions and


Recommendations

Summary
The Summary presents a general
overview of the study from the problem
and research objectives to the
methodology used ending up with a
summary of significant findings which
provide answers to the research
questions.

Guidelines in Writing the Summary


There should be a brief statement about the
main purpose of the study, hypotheses,
research design/method used, the sample,
research instruments, data gathering and
processing methods and statistical treatment.
There should be no explanation made.

The summary of findings must answer the


specific sub-problems or objectives
presented in Chapter 1 of the report. They
must be presented in the same order as
the sub-problems/objectives.

The findings must be textual


generalizations,that is, a summary of the
important data consisting of text and
numbers. Every statement of fact should
consist of words, numbers, or statistical
measures woven into a meaningful
statement. No deduction, nor inference nor
interpretation should be made otherwise it
will only be duplicated in the conclusion.

Only the important findings, the highlights


of the data, should be included especially
those upon which the conclusions should
be based.

Findings are not explained nor elaborated


upon anymore. They should be stated as
concisely as possible.

No new data should be introduced in this


section.
BACK

Conclusions
Conclusions are inferences, deductions,
abstractions, implications, interpretations,
general statements, and/or
generalizations based upon the findings.
They are the logical and valid outgrowths
of the findings.

Guidelines in Writing the Conclusions


The conclusions should not contain any
numeral because numerals generally limit the
forceful effect or impact and scope of a
generalization. No conclusions should be made
that are not based upon the findings.

Conclusions should appropriately answer the


specific questions raised at the beginning of the
investigation in the order they are given under
the statement of the problem. If there are only
three summarized findings, there should also
be three conclusions.
Conclusions should point out what were
factually learned from the inquiry. No
conclusion should be drawn from the implied or
indirect effects of the findings.

Conclusions should be formulated conscisely, that


is, brief and direct to the point, yet they convey all
the necessary information resulting from the study
as required by the specific questions.
Conclusions should be stated categorically. They
should be worded as if they are 100 percent true
and correct. They should not give any hint that the
researcher has some doubts about their validity
and reliability. The use of qualifiers such as
probably, perhaps, may be, and the like should be
avoided.

Conclusions should refer only to the population,


area, or subject of study.
Conclusions should not be repetitions of any
statements anywhere in the thesis. They may
be recapitulations if necessary but they should
be worded differently and they should convey
the same information as the statements
recapitulated.
BACK

Recommendations
Recommendations are proposals of how
the results can be used in terms of
existing knowledge. It also gives
suggestions for further research that is
related to the study.

Guidelines in the Recommendations


Recommendations should aim to solve or help
solve problems discovered in the investigation.
No recommendations should be made for
anything that has not been discovered or
discussed in the study because they are
irrelevant.

There may also be recommendations for the


continuance of a good practice or system, or
even recommendation for its improvement.
Recommendations should aim for the ideal
but they must be feasible, practical, and
attainable. They should also be logical and
valid.

Recommendations should be addressed to


the persons, entities, agencies, or offices
who or which are in a position to implement
them.
There should be a recommendation for
further research on the same topic to verify,
amplify, or negate the findings of the study.

BACK

Bibliography
This section is a must and considered an
integral part of the report. It is the
concluding section of a research paper
where listing of source materials is
presented according to prescribed format
and written on a separate page.

Any citations made in the manuscript must


be presented in this section.
This section is arranged in alphabetical
order.
A hanging indent is employed for each
reference, that is, the first line is not
indented and the rest are five-space
indented.

BACK

Appendix
Appendix materials include the questionnaire,
letter of transmittal, verbatim comments of the
respondents, original data, summary,
tabulations and computations of data,
computer print-outs, tables that contain data of
lesser importance, and other supporting
documents used in the study. It is listed by
letter and may be subdivided according to
certain logical classification.

References
Ardales, Venancio B.(2001). Basic concepts and methods in
research. Iloilo City: Concerns Inc.
Calderon, J.F. &Gonzales, E.C.(1993). Methods of research
and thesis writing(1st ed.). Mandaluyong City:
National Bookstore, Inc.
California State University, Sacramento, School of Social
Sciences & Interdisciplinary Studies. Organizing and
writing a literature review. Retrieval August 26, 2005
from the Web site: http://www.csus.edu/

Paler-Calmorin, L. & Calmorin, M.A.(1995). Methods of


research and thesis writing(1st ed.). Quezon City: Rex
Printing Company, Inc.
Sample manuscript in apa format. Retrieval September 13,
2005 from http://www.oswego.edu/~psychol/sample
manuscript.pdf
Taylor D. & Procter M. (July 2005). University of Toronto,
Health Sciences Writing Centre. The literature
review:
tips on conducting it. Retrieval August 26, 2005 from the
Web site: http://www.utoronto.ca/

Chapter 5

ORAL PRESENTATION

Topics
Guidelines in the Conduct of the Oral
Defense
Criteria and Rating Scale

Objectives
Be oriented with the policies and
guidelines in the conduct of the oral
defense for undergraduate thesis.
Be acquainted with the criteria and
rating scale in the evaluation of an
oral thesis presentation.

The following guidelines shall apply in the


conduct of undergraduate thesis oral
defense.
1. Students applying for final defense shall
coordinate with the subject teacher for
his/her schedule and panel members.
2. The following requirements shall be met by
the students before applying for an outline
defense:

Payment of thesis fee.


Three copies of thesis manuscript
endorsed by the adviser one week before
the scheduled outline defense, for
distribution to the panel members.

3. A powerpoint presentation of the research


output is required during the defense, good for
15 mins. max.
4. Students are advised to wear business attire
during the oral defense.
5. The presence of the adviser is a must during
the defense of his/her advisee. He/she shall
take note of the comments/suggestions of the
panel and make sure that his/her advisee follow
them.

6. The statistician shall not sit as a panel


member and may not be present during the
defense.
7. A student shall not be allowed to
participate in the commencement exercises
if he/she cannot submit five(5) copies of
bound thesis book properly signed by the
adviser, panel members and dean of
college.

Evaluation Criteria for Research Course


1. The Problem. Gives a clear exposition on
the nature and background of the problem
area in general and the rationale of the
study. The problem is original, unique,
relevant and reflects a noteworthy
contribution to the researchers field of
specialization and to society in general.

2. Review of Related Literature. Provides


profound insights into the nature of the
research problem. Discussions on theories,
concepts, facts, and/or ideas are adequate
and relevant. Points of agreement,
disagreements, similarities, contrasts of
related works are given.

3. Methodology. Description of the research


approach used is concisely written.
Procedures are presented/written in very
clear and logical sequence. The rationale
behind the choice of method/procedure is
explained. Sample size, sampling technique,
research instruments and statistical
treatment are suitable.

4. Results. Data are systematically and logically


presented, thoroughly analyzed, and
soundly interpreted as to their meanings,
substance, trends, relationships,
implications and/or statistical significance.
The findings, conclusions and
recommendations dovetail with each other
and give answers to the research problems.

5. General Format. The manuscript is very


well-organized and contains all the main
requisites of a typical thesis manuscript. The
prescribed rules on the format, spacing, and
pagination are strictly followed. Physical
appearance is attractive and mechanics of
writing is satisfactory. The style used is
impersonal, straight forward, and objective.

Unity, coherence, and emphasis are very


much in evidence in the presentation and
analysis of data, facts and ideas. Variations
in the structure and length of sentences and
paragraphs are maintained, ensuring an
interesting and effective individual style.

6. Oral Presentation. The oral presentation is


methodical, rational and coherent. It is brief
but complete. Appropriate and attractive
visual aids are used. Presenters are are
articulate and questions are answered
satisfactorily.

Grading System
CRITERIA

WEIGHT (%)

The Problem

10

Related Lit/Studies

10

Methodology

10

Results

40

General Format

10

Oral Presentation

20

Rating Scale
SCORE RANGE

DESCRIPTION

100.00-95.00

Outstanding

94.99-90.00

Very Good

89.99-85.00

Good

84.99-80.00

Poor

79.99-75.00

Very Poor

74.99-BELOW

Failed

Outstanding. The indicators of the criterion are carried


out very evidently.
Very Good. The indicators of the criterion are carried
out evidently.
Good. The indicators of the criterion are carried out
fairly.
Poor. The indicators of the criterion are carried out
deficiently.
Very Poor. The indicators of the criterion are carried
out very deficiently.
Failure. The indicators of the criterion are not evident
at all.

Good Luck