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THINKING

Whether we are awake or asleep we


are always thinking. Even if you were
to stop thinking about what you are
reading at this moment and your
thoughts were to wander off, yet you
would still be thinking.

Thinking may be described as mental


processing of information.
Thinking can take many forms such as
daydreaming, imagination, reasoning
and problem-solving.
Thinking helps us in adapting to our
physical and social environment.

TYPES OF
THINKING
Vertical Thinking
Lateral Thinking

VERTICAL THINKING
Dr de Bono describes vertical thinking as "the
traditional type of thinking." It is a process which
is inherently logical and governed by rules.
Vertical thinking is selectivehere it is the
correctness of the method that is at the core and
not the idea.
To be always correct we have to constantly
analyze and evaluate our methods.

LATERAL THINKING
Edward De Bono's describes lateral thinking as
"the method of thinking concerned with changing
concepts and perception.
Lateral thinking is about reasoning that is not
immediately obvious and about ideas that may
not be obtainable by using only traditional stepby-step logic.
The emphasis is on generation of ideas whatever
may be the process.

ERRORS IN THINKING

Everybody
misunderstands
and
misinterprets information, Edward de
Bono has listed some of the common
thinking fallacies (errors) of people.

Error No. 1
People believe that thinking is conditioned by the
extent of education a person has received. If he is
more educated, he must be a better thinker.
This is not true. Dr. de Bono believes that
education does not allow a person to think
independently as its thrust is on logical thinking
based on the analytical abilities of a person's mind.

Error No. 2
People who haven't received any education or
have been educated marginally can never
become good thinkers.
This is not true. People with little or no
education do not possess ready-made answers.
They do not get bogged down but move ahead
and
experiment
and
understand
things
themselves. Their experiences are first-hand
and hence are able to give original solutions to
problems.

Error No. 3
People with lower intelligence quotient (IQ)
possess lesser thinking ability. Those with more
IQ are better thinkers.
Higher IQ facilitates analytical thinking. People
having high IQ use their sharp thinking power for
intellectual purposes which are characterized by
argument, reasoning and criticism.
People who have low IQ do not have to carry the
burden of high IQ and the sense of shame
associated with failure. They are aware of their
intellectual limitations. The sense of possible
failure does not deter them from exploring and
experimenting.

Error No. 4
The ability to think, take decisions and solve
problems cannot be guided as people are born
with it.
Dr. de Bono believes the opposite is true. He
believes thinking is a skill that can be taught or
reinforced by training and practice, and, thus
decision making, problem solving and creative
thinking can be developed and improved.

THE SIX
THINKING
HATS

The six hats represent six modes of


thinking and are directions to think
rather than labels for thinking.
That is, the hats are used proactively
rather than reactively.

INTELLIEGEN
CE

"the aggregate or global capacity of


the individual to act purposefully, to
think rationally and to deal effectively
with his environment".

Spearman's G-Factor Theory


British
psychologist
Charles
Spearman proposed the theory of
general intelligence. According to
Spearman intelligence comprised of
two factors "g" and "s." Hence this
theory is sometimes known as the
two-factor theory of intelligence.

Spearman stated:
Every intelligent activity involves a
factor common to all activities called
the general factor or "g."
In addition, every activity also
involves something specific to it
called the specific factor or "s."

INTELLIGENCE AS A
COLLECTION OF MANY
ABILITIES

Thurstone's Theory of Intelligence


Gardners Theory of multiple intelligence

Thurstone's Theory of
Intelligence
Thurstone suggested that intelligence
can be broken down into a number of
primary mental abilities.
Primary mental abilities are as follows:
Verbal
Comprehension
(V)
Understanding ideas and word meanings.
Word Fluency (W) Speed in thinking of
words.

Perceptual Speed (P) - Ability to quickly


distinguish
visual
details
and
similarities/differences between objects.
Memory (M) - Ability to memorize words,
numbers, etc.
Numerical Ability (N) - Speed and accuracy
in performing arithmetical calculations.
Spatial Ability (S) - Ability to visualize
relationships in three dimensions.
Reasoning (R) - Ability to derive a rule from
given information.

Gardners Theory of multiple intelligence

According to Gardner, intelligence is not


a "thing" inside the head but a
"potential" that allows the individual to
think
appropriately
in
a
specific
situation. Gardner was convinced that
there are separate kinds of intelligence
mediated by different parts of the brain.

Gardners Theory of
multiple
intelligence
Linguistic intelligence: it is the capacity for speech, along
with mechanisms connected to speech sounds, grammar,
meaning, and use of language in various settings.

Logical-mathematical intelligence: It is the ability to


engage in abstract thought. It is the ability to use and
appreciate relationships in the absence of actions or
objects.

Musical intelligence: It is the ability to create,


communicate and understand meanings made of sound,
along with mechanisms dedicated to pitch, rhythm, and
sound quality.

Visual/Spatial intelligence: It is also known as artistic


intelligence. It is the ability to perceive visual or spatial
information, modify it, and recreate visual images without
reference to the original stimulus. It is the ability to
construct three dimensional images.

Interpersonal intelligence: It
social intelligence. It is
understand other people:
them, how they work,
cooperatively with them.

is also known as
the ability to
what motivates
how to work

Intrapersonal intelligence: It is the ability to


form an accurate model of oneself and use
that model to operate effectively in life.
Kinesthetic intelligence: It is the ability to use
all or part of the body to solve problems. It is
the control an individual has over fine and
gross motor actions.

EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE
Emotional intelligence (EQ) refers to how
well an individual handles himself and
others rather than how smart he is or how
capable he is in terms of technical skills. EQ
is the social equivalent of IQ.

DIMENSIONS OF EI

Knowing
one's
emotions:
Emotionally
intelligent
individuals have high self-awareness and recognize their
feelings as it happens. In order to understand and gain
insight in to one self it is essential to monitor one's
feelings from moment to moment.

Managing
one's
emotions:
Individuals
with
high
emotional intelligence not only understand their feelings
but also manage it appropriately. They are able to handle
the setbacks and upsets of life better. Individuals low on
this ability are more likely to experience distress.

DIMENSIONS OF EI

Motivating oneself: Emotionally intelligent individuals


channelize their emotions in pursuit of goals. They are
creative and self-motivating in nature. This ability
makes them more productive and effective.

Recognizing other's emotions: Empathy is an


important characteristic of emotionally intelligent
individuals. They are able to understand others
emotions and feelings and can recognize the needs of
others. Individuals high on this skill do well in caring
professions such as nursing, social work etc.

Handling
relationships:
Emotionally
intelligent
individuals are very good in their social relationships.
They excel in tasks that require interaction with
others.

SPIRITUAL INTELLIGENCE
Spiritual intelligence is concerned with
the growth of the human being. A
growth which is achieved through a
process
of
personal
insight
and
experience. It s about finding meaning
and direction in life. SQ or spiritual
Quotient is the measure of spiritual
intelligence.

CHARACTERISIC OF
SPIRITUAL QUOTEINT
Self-Awareness about who they really are
and their connection with the whole
universe.
Are led by vision and values.
Capacity to face and use adversity.

Holistic - see the connection between


things.
Celebrate diversity.
Field Independence.
The tendency to ask why.
Ability to re-frame and look at things in a
larger context.

THAN
K YOU