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Lagging

Introduction
Lagging or Thermal insulation:
This is the reduction ofheat
transferbetween objects in thermal
contact. Thermal insulation can be
achieved with specially engineered
methods or processes, as well as with
suitable object shapes and materials.

material types
There are three main types of
thermal insulation materials:
Fiberglass
Cellulose
Spray in polyurethane foam

Application of Insulation Materials


I. Buildings
Building insulations also commonly use
the principle of small trapped air-cells
e.g. fiberglass (specificallyglass wool),
cellulose,rock wool,
polystyrenefoam,urethane
foam,vermiculite,perlite,cork, etc.

Piping Insulation

Spacecraft
Re-entry through the atmosphere generates very high
temperatures due to compression of the air at high
speeds. Insulators must meet demanding physical
properties beyond their thermal transfer retardant
properties.
E.g. reinforcedcarbon-carbon composite nose cone
andsilicafiber tiles of theSpace Shuttle.

Automotive
Internal combustion enginesproduce a
lot of heat during their combustion cycle.
This can have a negative effect when it
reaches various heat-sensitive
components such as sensors, batteries
and starter motors. As a result, thermal
insulation is necessary to prevent the
heat from the exhaust
reaching these components.

Maximum Temperatures

Thermal Conductivities of common


Insulation Materials

Energy Loss costs


Energy losses costs will depend on the
following:
Heat loss from the pipe
Pipe diameter
Temperatures of inside and outside
Insulations
Cost of the fuel
Boiler efficiency

Economic lagging
Cost of the Insulation will depend on:
Insulation material
Insulation thickness
Pipe Length
Labour costs

Critical radius of Insulation

Critical Radius of Insulation


The variation of the heat transfer rate
with the outer radius of the insulation r2 is
shown in the figure.
Thus, insulating the pipe may
actually increase the rate of heat
transfer from the pipe instead of
decreasing it whenr2< rcr.

Question
An electric wire is wrapped with a
3mm thick plastic cover. If thermal
conductivity of Plastic is k=0.15 W/mK
and outside h= 24 W/m2K.
Explain the heat loss of the system if
the insulation resistance is doubled.
What happens if the thickness is
tripled.

Question
Calculate the critical radius of insulation
for a material of k=0.17 W/mK
surrounding a pipe and exposed to a
room air at 20 C with h = 5 W/m2K
Calculate the heat loss from this pipe if
the pipe diameter is 5 cm and the
inside of the pipe is at 200 C. (Select a
suitable thickness for the insulation)

Question
In the above question if the insulation
material used cost Rs. 220 per meter
cube.
If the maximum cost of insulation that
can spent in this insulation is Rs. 8 per
meter length. What is the thickness of
the insulation.
What is the heat loss amount in this
thickness.