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# STIN2063 Machine

Learning

Chapter 1 (Part 2)
Introduction to Machine Learning

## Dr. Mohd Shamrie Sainin

School of Computing
College of Arts and Sciences
Universiti Utara Malaysia
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Chapter Objective
At the end of this chapter, student
must be able to
Design simple Learning System.
Describe the basic of problem
solving using Machine Learning
technique.
Discuss issues related to Machine
Learning
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## Chapter 1 Part 2 Outline

Defining a learning system
Training Experience
Target Function
Target Function Representation
Training Procedure and Algorithm
Architecture of a Learner
Issues in Machine Learning
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Defining a Learning
Systems

Improve over task T, with respect to
performance measure P, based on
experience E.
Examples:
T: Playing checkers
P: Percent of games won against opponents
E: Playing practice games against itself
T: Recognizing hand-written words
P: Percent of words correctly classified
E: Database of classified handwritten words

## Design Choices for Learning to

Play CheckersDetermine Type of
Training Experience
Games
against experts

Games
against self

Table of
correct moves

Determine
Target Function
Board move

Board value

Determine Representation of
Learned Function
Polynomial

Linear function
of six features

Artificial neural
network

Determine
Learning Algorithm
descent

Completed Design

Linear
programming

Designing a Learning
System

Step:
Choosing the Training
Experience
Choosing the Target Function
Choosing a Representation for
the Target Function
Choosing a Function
Approximation Algorithm

## Defining The Learning

System

Learning to classify/predict student
Performance:
Percentage of correct classification of
Experience:

Step 1
Step1: Choosing the training
experience
Student data is normally consist of:
quizzes, assignments, projects,
attendance and presentations.
Training experience should be taken
from the items which directly related to
our future target.
Here we assume that the training data
must be direct training example
(supervised)

Step 2
Step 2: Choosing the target function
Target function is the type of
knowledge that will be learned
Here, our target is to know the grade
of the student, G(s).
Therefore we can define our target
value:
G(s) 70, then HIGH
G(s) < 70, then LOW

## We can simplified our target function

as:
G: Mark

Step 3
Step 3: Choosing the Representation
of target function
Representation of target function is the function
which the learning program will use to learn.
We have many options:
Represent G using rules
Represent G using boolean feature
Etc..
Note: The more expressive the representation,
the more training data the program will require
to choose among alternative it can represent.

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Step 3: Contd
We choose a simple representation: for any
given grade, the function of G will be calculated
as discretized combination of the following
features:

x1:
x2:
x3:
x4:
x5:
x6:
x7:

Quiz 1 mark
Quiz 2 mark
Assignment 1 mark
Assignment 2 mark
project mark
presentation mark
attendance

## Using this combination, our target function

representation can be formulated as:
X G(X) where G(X) {HIGH|LOW}
Where X is combination of features from x1..x7

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Step 3: Contd
Thus, our learning program will
represent G(s) as a discrete linear
neural network function of the form:
G(s) =
w0+w1x1+w2x2+w3x3+w4x4+w5x5
+w6x6+w7x7
where w is weight chosen by the
learning program
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Step 4
Step 4: Choosing a Function Approximation.
In order to learn target function G we
require set of training examples, each
describing a specific mark m and the
training value Gtrain(m) for m.
The example representation of training
examples:
<<x1=5,x2=5,x3=10,x4=10,x5=20,x6=
10,x7=10>, HIGH>
<<x1=3,x2=2,x3=4,x4=2,x5=10,x6=4,x
7=2>, LOW>

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Step 4 Contd
With the representation of target function and
training data, we can use function
approximation: Perceptron
Using perceptron because:
Can be used to solve linear problem
uses a one-layer network with a binary step
activation function

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Final Design
Experiment Generator
New problem

Hypothesis G
Generalizer

Performance System

Training examples

Solution trace
Critic

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Final Design
The final design of grade learning system can be
described by four distinct program modules:
The Performance System
module that must solve performance task. It takes new
input (grade) and provide an output (classification)
Performance is expected to improve

The Critic
Takes input of history trace of the data and produce a
set of training examples

The Generalizer
Takes as input the training examples and produce
output hypothesis that is estimating the target
function

Experiment Generator
Takes an input the current hypothesis (learned
function) and output new problem.

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Summary
Determine Type of Training Experience
Set of rules
List of marks

Marks rules

Marks value
.

Polynomial

Neural Network

## Determine Rep. Target Function

Backpropagation

Perceptron

Completed design

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Perspectives in ML
Learning as search in a space of possible
hypotheses
Representations for hypotheses
Linear functions
Logical descriptions
Decision trees
Neural networks
Learning methods are characterized by
their search strategies and by the
underlying structure of the search spaces.

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Issues in ML
Algorithms
What generalization methods exist?
When (if ever) will they converge?
Which are best for which types of problems and
representations?

## Amount of Training Data

How much is sufficient?
confidence, data & size of space

Prior knowledge
When & how can it help?

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Issues in ML
Choosing experiments
Are there good strategies?
How do choices affect complexity?

Reducing problems

Flexible representations
automatic modification?

## Biological learning systems

any clues there? E.g. ABC, ACO, GWO, etc.

Noise
influence to accuracy

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Future of ML
Current Directions
Feature Selection & Extraction
Biologically-inspired solutions (Genetic
Algorithms)
Multiple models, hybrid models
ML & Intelligent Agents distributed
models
Web/Text/Multimedia Mining
ML in emerging data-intensive areas:
Bioinformatics, Intrusion Detection
Philosophical and social aspects of ML

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Future of ML
Currently, most ML is on stationary flat
tables
Richer data sources
knowledge bases
Applications
Web, Bioinformatics, Customer
modeling,

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Future of ML
Technical
tera-bytes and peta-bytes data flood!
complex, multi-media, semi-structured data
integration with domain (expert) knowledge
Societal
Privacy/ethical issues many issues still
unsolved!
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