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65 views24 pagesFrequency Tables, Frequency
Distributions, and Graphic
Presentation

Sep 07, 2015

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Frequency Tables, Frequency
Distributions, and Graphic
Presentation

© All Rights Reserved

65 views

Frequency Tables, Frequency
Distributions, and Graphic
Presentation

© All Rights Reserved

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Distributions, and Graphic

Presentation

Chapter 2

McGraw-Hill/Irwin

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

LO1 Make a frequency table for a set of data.

LO2 Organize data into a bar chart.

LO3 Present a set of data in a pie chart.

LO4 Create a frequency distribution for a

data set.

LO5 Understand a relative frequency

distribution.

LO6 Present data from a frequency

distribution in a histogram or frequency

polygon.

2-2

Charts, Tables and Graphs

- Example

table for a set of data

range of vehicles through its four dealerships. Ms.

Kathryn Ball, a member of the senior management

team at AAG, is responsible for tracking and

analyzing vehicle sales and the profitability of

those vehicles. Kathryn would like to summarize

the profit earned on the vehicles sold with tables,

charts, and graphs that she would review monthly.

She wants to know the profit per vehicle sold, as

well as the lowest and highest amount of profit.

She is also interested in describing the

demographics of the buyers. What are their ages?

How many vehicles have they previously

purchased from one of the Applewood

dealerships? What type of vehicle did they

purchase? Partial data for 180 customers are

shown on the table on the right.

2-3

LO2

Frequency Table

FREQUENCY TABLE A grouping of qualitative data into

mutually exclusive classes showing the number of

observations in each class.

at Applewood Auto Group by Location

2-4

Bar Charts

bar chart

horizontal axis and the class frequencies on the vertical axis. The

class frequencies are proportional to the heights of the bars.

2-5

Pie Charts

in a pie chart.

that each class represents of the total number of

frequencies.

2-6

LO3

2-7

Frequency Distribution

distribution for a data set.

mutually exclusive classes showing the number of

observations in each class.

TABLE 21 Frequency Table for Vehicles Sold Last Month

at Applewood Auto Group by Location

2-8

SkiLodges.com is test marketing its new

website and is interested in how easy its

Web page design is to navigate. It

randomly selected 200 regular Internet

users and asked them to perform a search

task on the Web page. Each person was

asked to rate the relative ease of

navigation as poor, good, excellent, or

awesome. The results are shown in the

table on the right.

1. What type of measurement scale is used for

ease of navigation?

2. Draw a bar chart for the survey results.

3. Draw a pie chart for the survey results.

2-9

Example Ski

Lodges.Com

is used for ease of navigation?

2. Draw a bar chart for the survey

results.

3. Draw a pie chart for the survey

results.

2-10

frequency distribution.

frequencies to show the fraction of the total number

of observations in each class.

A relative frequency captures the relationship between

a class total and the total number of observations.

2-11

LO5

Frequency Distribution

Class interval: The class

interval is obtained by

subtracting the lower limit

of a class from the lower

limit of the next class.

Class frequency: The

number of observations in

each class.

Class midpoint: A point

that divides a class into

two equal parts. This is

the average of the upper

and lower class limits.

2-12

EXAMPLE Creating a

Frequency Distribution Table

frequency distribution in a

histogram or frequency polygon.

Group wants to develop tables, charts,

and graphs to show the typical profit

for each sale. Table 24 reports the

profit on each of the 180 vehicles sold

last month at the four Applewood

locations.

What is the typical profit on each

sale?

What is the largest profit on any sale?

What is the lowest profit on any sale?

Around what value did the profits tend

to cluster?

2-13

LO6

A useful recipe to determine the number of classes (k) is the 2 to the k

rule. such that 2k > n.

There were 180 vehicles sold, so n = 180. If we try k = 7, then 27 = 128,

somewhat less than 180. Hence, 7 is not enough classes. If we let k = 8, then 28

= 256, which is greater than 180. So the recommended number of classes is 8.

The formula is: i (H-L)/k where i is the class interval, H is the highest

observed value, L is the lowest observed value, and k is the number of

classes.

a class width of $400

2-14

LO6

2-15

LO6

vehicle profits into

the classes.

number of items in

each class.

2-16

LO6

To convert a frequency distribution to a relative frequency

distribution, each of the class frequencies is divided by the total

number of observations.

TABLE 28 Relative Frequency Distribution of Profit for Vehicles Sold Last Month at

Applewood Auto Group

2-17

LO6

Distribution

The three commonly

used graphic forms are:

Histograms

Frequency polygons

Cumulative frequency

distributions

2-18

LO6

Histogram

HISTOGRAM A graph in which the classes are marked on the

horizontal axis and the class frequencies on the vertical axis. The

class frequencies are represented by the heights of the bars and the

bars are drawn adjacent to each other.

2-19

LO6

2-20

LO6

Frequency

Polygon

A frequency polygon,

similar to a histogram,

also shows the shape

of a distribution

It consists of line

segments connecting

the class midpoints of

the class frequencies.

2-21

LO6

of the main characteristics of

the data (highs, lows, points

of concentration, etc.)

Advantage of the histogram

it depicts each class as a

rectangle, with the height of

the rectangular bar

representing the number in

each class.

Advantage of the frequency

polygon - it allows us to

compare directly two or more

frequency distributions.

2-22

Cumulative Frequency

Distribution

LO6

2-23

LO6

2-24

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