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Presented by:

Department of Geography

University of the Punjab

1.What is Ice Age ? 3. Causes of Ice Age.
2. Background of Ice Age. II. Many causes….
4. Inter-Glacial Period.
I-Landform II-Climatic 5. Global Warming &
Changes Changes
Ice Age.
6. Conclusion.

III-Changes in
Snow Line
1. What is Ice Age ?
When we hear of the ice age, the first two
things that comes to mind is "Ice" and
"long time ago“.These were four periods
of time when large areas of Earth’s
surface were covered with vast ice sheets
referred to as glaciers, which covered
most of North America and Eurasia. This
took place around 2 million to 11,500
years ago. This was called the Pleistocene
period or Ice Age.
2. Background of Ice Age
This last major glacial period began about 2,000,000
years B.P. and is commonly known as the Pleistocene or
Ice Age. During this glacial period, large glacial ice
sheets covered much of North America, Europe and Asia
for long periods of time.

1. Glaciers retreated (interglacial) because of mild

2. Glaciers advanced because of colder
temperature (glacial).

In ice age, average global temperature were

probably 4°C to 5°C colder than they are today at
the peak of the Pleistocene. The most recent glacial
retreat began about 14,000 years B.P. and is still
going on. We call this period the Holocene epoch.
According to geological time scale
Climatic Changes

 I- Rise & Fall in Sea level.

 II- Mountain Building.
 III- Tectonic Movement.
 IV- Land Bridges.
 V- Migration.
 VI- Terraces.
 VII- Volcanic Eruption.
I- Rise & Fall in Sea Level
In Glacial period, glaciers not only covered the middle
and Polar Regions but also sea level reduced on large
scale. It is said that sea level reduced about 500 to 600
metres in that period.
II- Mountain Building
It is known that a large number of mountains and their ranges came into
existence due to mountain building movement and they uplifted much
more. This period is known as the Period of Mountain building.
III- Tectonic Movement
Present mountains formation came into being due to
tectonic movement in this period. When these tectonic
plates pressed and pressure increased then folds
produced and these folds converted into mountains
forms and this process continues for long time.
IV-Land Bridges
When glacaition started, sea level reduced and land
bridges produced. The Communication system started
and strong link was set up among different continents.
V- Migration
Different kinds of species and animals migrated
from one continent towards other continents due to
Land bridges.
VI- Terraces
Glacial terraces show that climate has changed due to
rise in temperature. During first & second glaciation,
we can see sudden changes on the earth’s surface due to
rise in the temperature and it shows the temperature was
more than 48 °C and the glacial deposits are found on
the earth’s surface during last glaciation.
VI- Volcanic Eruption
Volcanoes can violently erupt significant amounts of ash into the
atmosphere. The ash reflects incoming solar radiation, reducing
atmospheric temperatures. Dust may remain in the atmosphere for several
years producing spectacular sunsets and slight cooling. The cooling effect
of dust is well documented.
Changes in Snow Line
In Ice age or Pleistocene time, snow line
fluctuated to 750 meters. Glaciers retreated or
advanced to thousands meters due to changes in
temperature. In northern hemisphere, glaciers
covered the 1/3 part of the world in Ice ages but
suddenly change in temperature, caused the
change in snow line.
Changing in snow line came by following ways:
> Snow Line Altitude
> Depression of Snow Line
1. Snow Line Altitude: More than 1800 metres.
2. Depression of Snow Line: 300 to 1300 metres.
2- Causes of Ice Age
 Changes in the Earth’s Orbit:
 Tilt Of The Earth’s Axis:
 Precession Of The Equinoxes:
 Volcanic Eruption:
 Sunspot:
 Global Warming:
Changes in the Earth’s Orbit
Calculations reveal an approximately 92,000
-100,000-year cycle between times of maximum
eccentricity. This 100,000 year cycle corresponds
closely to ~20 warm-cold climatic cycles.
Tilt Of The Earth’s Axis
This angle, today about 23.5°, shifts about 1.5°
one way or the other during a 41,000 year
Precession Of The Equinoxes
Precession is a slight wobble in the axis of the
earth’s rotation caused by the gravitational pull
exerted by the sun and the moon. These
position complete one full cycle about every
23,000 years.
Volcanic Eruption
In Pleistocene time or Ice age, sunspots action
increased more and by which their energy released
much. After that they caused in increasing the solar
radiation and later the result, rate of ablation
increased and evaporation also increased which
caused the snow falling or glaciations.
Global Warming
Global warming affects the all lives which live
on the earth’s surface but its effects on Human
life are very dangerous, especially for human
skin which is affected by its ultra violet
4. Inter-Glacial Period
What is commonly called the ice age is actually
the most recent (Quaternary) which began about
two million years ago, and was characterized by
cold (glacial), and relatively warm (interglacial)
phases. Four major continental glaciations are
recorded in North America. The last Ice Age
began about 70,000 years ago, and ended 10,000
years ago. At the peak of the last glaciation,
approximately 97% of Canada was covered by
ice. We are presently in an interglacial phase that
could last for another 10,000 or more years.

There are many glacial and interglacial periods

but most important are four that are following:








Last Maximum Glaciation
Last Maximum Glaciation by Geological Record
Last Maximum Glaciation
 Soil Erosion:
 Dust Particles in the Upper Atmosphere
 Albedo:
 Relationship between Global Warming and
Another Ice Age:
Soil Erosion
Soil erosion will be very more and It is due to
rise and fall in temperature which can become a
cause of ice age
Dust Particles in the Upper
Relationship between Global warming
Another Ice Age
global view

north pole view south pole view

A Big Cause of Another
Ice Age
According to many geologists and scientists, we are
living in an interglacial period and it is going on
gradually. Many climatologists see such events as
evidence that the earth’s climate is changing slowly but
drastically. The tropics are getting hotter because of the
“Greenhouse effects”-the build up of carbon dioxide in
the atmosphere because of burning of large quantities of
coal and the felling of the forests which could have
absorbed much of it. Carbon dioxide acts like the glass
of greenhouse, letting the sun’s ultraviolet rays heat the
earth’s surface, but preventing this heat from being re-
radiated back into space.
The simultaneous warming of one part of the world and the cooling of
another is known as the“differential Greenhouse effect” and it can
become a cause of another glaciation as in the following figure which
as under:
There is other warming sign. Only nine periods of the
past 700,000years have been as warm as earth is now.
And these “interglacial “periods have been brief-10, 000
to 11,000 years followed by cold spells of 100,000
years. The pattern can be traced back two million years.
But there is also general acceptance and surely, all
accept that if this process goes on according to this
pattern, it would be possible that after 10,000 to 20,000
years, there would be another ice age.

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