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Chapter-2

Models of Organizational Behavior


Lecture # 4-6

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An organizational Behavior System


Organizations achieve their goals by creating,
communicating, and operating an organizational
behavior system.
The primary purposes of organizational behavior
systems are to identify and then help manipulate
the major human and organizational variables
that affect the results organizations are trying to
achieve.

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Elements of the System


a) The philosophy and values: It means an
integrated set of assumptions and beliefs about
the way things are of the organization, the
purposes of these activities and the way they
should be. The philosophies may be autocratic,
custodial, supportive etc. The philosophy of
organizational behavior originated from two
sources- Fact premises and Value premises.

1. Fact premises represent our descriptive


view of how the world behaves. They are drawn
from both behavioral science research and our
personal experiences.
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2. Value premises represent our view of the


desirability of certain goals and objectives .
These are a variable beliefs we hold and
therefore under our control.
b) Vision: It means a challenging portrait of what
the organization and its members can be a
possible and desirable future. It basically
focused on achieving long-term goals and
objectives.
c) Mission: It identifies the business it is in the
market niches it tries to serve the types of
customers it is likely to have, and the reasons
for its existence. In contrast to vision, mission
statements are more descriptive and less future
oriented.
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d) Goal: Goals are relatively concrete


formulations of achievements the organization
is aiming for within set periods of time, i.e.. one
to five years. Goals may exist at the individual ,
group and larger organizational level. Goals are
more specific.

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An Organizational Behavior System


Managements
Philosophy, Values, Vision, Mission, Goals

Formal Organization

Informal Organization

Organizational Culture

Social Environment

Leadership, Communication
Group dynamics

Quality of work life

Motivation
Outcomes:
1. Performance
2. Employee satisfaction
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3. Persona, growth & development

Philosophy , values, vision, mission, goals all help


to create a recognizable organizational culture.
This culture also a reflection of the formal
organization with its formal policies, structures
and procedures and the existing social and
cultural environment. The formal and informal
organizations provide the glue that binds the
varied elements of the institution into an effective
working team.
Managers are then expected to use a leadership
style, communications skills and their knowledge
of interpersonal and group dynamics to create
an appropriate quality of work life for the
employees.
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Theory X, Theory Y:
In his 1960 book, The Human Side of Enterprise,
Douglas McGregor proposed two theories by
which to view employee motivation. He avoided
descriptive labels and simply called the theories
Theory X and Theory Y. Both of these theories
begin with the premise that management's role is
to assemble the factors of production, including
people, for the economic benefit of the firm.
Beyond this point, the two theories of management
diverge.

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Theory X assumes that the average person:


1. Dislikes work and attempts to avoid it.
2. Has no ambition, wants no responsibility, and
would rather follow than lead.
3. Is self-centered and therefore does not care
about organizational goals.
4. Resists change.
5. Is gullible and not particularly intelligent.
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Theory Y makes the following general


assumptions:
1. Work can be as natural as play and rest.
2. People will be self-directed to meet their work
objectives if they are
committed to them.
3. People will be committed to their objectives if
rewards are in place that address higher needs
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such as self-fulfillment.

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1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Models of OB
Autocratic Model
Custodial Model
Supportive Model
Collegial Model
System Model

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1. Autocratic Model:
Autocratic model depends on power. The
people who are in command must have the
power to demand you do this or else, meaning
that an employee who does not follow order will
be penalizes.

In the autocratic environment the managerial


orientation is formal, official, authority. This
authority is delegated by right of command over
the people to whom it applies.
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Management believes that it knows what is best


and that the employees obligation is to follow
orders. It assumes that employees have to
directed, and pushed into performance and such
prompting is managements task.

Under autocratic conditions the employee


orientation is obedience to boss not respect for a
manager. The psychological result for employees
is dependence on their boss, whose power to
hire , fire etc.
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2. Custodial Model:
In autocratic model employees did not talk back to
their boss, but they certainly thought back.
A successful custodial approach depends on
economic resources. The resulting managerial
orientation is toward money to pay wages and
benefits. Since employees physical needs are
already reasonably met, the employer looks to
security needs as a motivating force. If an
organization does not have the wealth to provide
pensions and pay other benefits, it cannot follow
a custodial approach.
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The custodial approach leads to employee


dependence on the organization. Rather than
being dependent on their boss for their weekly
bread, employees now depend on organizations
for their security and welfare.
The custodial model is describe in its extreme in
order to show its emphasis on material rewards,
security, and organizational dependence.
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3. Supportive Model:
The supportive model of organizational
behavior had its origins in the principle of
supportive relationships. It depends on
leadership instead of power or money .
Through leadership, management provides a
climate to hope employees grow and
accomplish in the interests of the organization
the things of which theft are capable.
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The leader assumes that workers are not


by nature passive and resisted to
organizational needs, but that they are
made so by an inadequately supportive
climate at work. They will take
responsibility , develop a drive to
contribute, and improve themselves if
management will give them a chance.
Here managements concentration is to support the
employees job performance rather than to simply
support employee benefit payments as in the
custodial approach. Employee says we instead
of they when referring to their organization.
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4. Collegial Model:
A useful extension of the supportive model is the
collegial model. The term collegial relates to a
body of people working together cooperatively.
The collegial model embodies a team concept.
The collegial model depends on managements
building a feeling of partnership with employees.
The result is that employees feel needed and
useful. They feel that managers are contributing
also , so it is easy to accept and respect their
roles in the organization. Managers are seen as
joint contributors rather than as bosses.
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The managerial orientation is toward


teamwork and management is the coach
that builds a better team. The employee
response to this situation is
responsibility.
5. System Model: Under the system model
managers try to convey to each worker,
you are an important part of our whole
system. We sincerely care about each of
you. We want to join together to achieve
a better product or service, local
community and society at large. We will
make every effort to make products that
are environmentally friendly.
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The role of a manager becomes one of facilitating


employee accomplishments through a variety of
actions. These actions are
1. Support employee commitment to short-and
long-term goals.
2. Coach individuals and groups in appropriate
skills and behaviors.

3.Model and foster self-esteem.


4. Show genuine concern and empathy for people.
5. Offer timely and acceptable feedback.
6. Help individuals identify and confront issues in
ethical ways.
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