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CT Saturation Tolerance

for 87L Applications


Zhihan Xu, Matt Proctor, Ilia Voloh
GE Digital Energy

Mike Lara - SNC-Lavalin


Texas A&M Relay Conference 2015

Outline
CT fundamentals
CT saturation
Simplified CT saturation analysis
Effects of CT saturation on 87L
Techniques to improve CT
saturation tolerance for 87L
applications
CT saturation analysis tool for 87L
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CT Fundamentals
Like any other kind of transformer,
consisting of two windings
magnetically coupled by the flux in a
saturable steel core
Draw an exciting current to keep the
core excited
Experience copper losses, core losses,
eddy current losses and leakage flux

CT Fundamentals Excitation
Characteristic
More practical way to represent the CT
steady-state performance

Provided by
manufacturers
Verified during
field tests
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CT Fundamentals Simulation
Model
IEEE PSRC model
Assume the single-valued saturation
curve
Ignore curve in the below-knee-point
region

CT Saturation AC Saturation
Steady state saturation
Caused by the symmetrical current
with no DC component
1.5

To avoid AC
saturation

VX I S Z S

Cur r ent ( pu of f aul t )

CT Ratio: 800/5
Burden: 2 ohms
Vs@10A: 303 V
DC offset: 0%

Ratio Current

0.5

-0.5

Saturated Secondary
Current (15-65kA)

-1

-1.5
0.015

0.02

0.025

0.03

0.035

0.04

0.045

0.05

Ti me ( s )

CT Saturation DC Saturation
Transient saturation
Caused by DC component in the fault
current, unipolar half wave current or
remnant flux in the CT
2.5

CT Ratio: 800/5
Burden: 2 ohms
Vs@10A: 303 V
DC offset: 100%

Ratio Current

To avoid DC
saturation

X
VX I S Z S (1 )
R

Cur r ent ( pu of f aul t )

2
1.5
1
0.5
0
-0.5
-1

Saturated Secondary
Current (15-65kA)
0.02

0.03

0.04

0.05

0.06

0.07

0.08

Ti me ( s )
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CT Saturation Contributing
Factors
High primary fault current
Excessive secondary burden
Heavy DC offset in current
Large percent remanence

Effect on current phasor estimation


Nonlinear exciting current during
saturation affects the performance of
current-based protection elements

Simplified Analysis Simplification


Exact same samples during unsaturation
Saturated current samples are zero during
saturation
Saturation is repeated each half cycle with
the
same
pattern
No dc
offset
1.5

0.5

Cur r ent ( pu)

The time to
saturation longer
than half cycle is not
considered since 87
function operates at
high speed

Ideal Current
Saturated Current

-0.5

-1

-1.5

0.005

0.01

0.015

0.02

0.025

0.03

0.035

Ti me ( s)

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Simplified Analysis Example

Time to saturation: 2.86 ms @


60Hz
Magnitude: 0.3 pu of ideal

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Simplified Analysis Phasor, RMS


Adjust time to saturation from 0 to 0.5 cycle

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Simplified Analysis
Approximation
I SAT t SAT I IDEAL t SAT
t SAT 0.916 0.6565 cos( 4.324t SAT ) 0.3429 sin( 4.324t SAT )
0.3008 cos(8.648t SAT ) 0.1621 sin( 8.648t SAT )
0.04234 cos(12.972t SAT ) 0.01394 sin( 12.972t SAT )
t SAT 0, 0.5 cycle

t SAT 61.55 36.52 cos( 4.733t SAT ) 49.84 sin( 4.733t SAT )
6.392 cos(9.466t SAT ) 0.4704 sin( 9.466t SAT )
t SAT 0, 0.5 cycle
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Effect on 87L Internal Faults


Consider internal faults in a two-terminal line
Traditional percentage differential plane is
analyzed I I
L

I R (t SAT ) KI P ( (t SAT ) )

is an angle difference tolerance factor


K is a magnitude difference tolerance factor
Different fault current level at the remote end
Different CT performance between two CTs
Model difference between simplified saturation
and real saturation
Other errors caused by DC offset, asymmetrical
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saturation, etc.

Effect on 87L Internal Faults


I DIFF I L I R I P (t SAT ) KI P ( (t SAT ) )
I P 1 (t SAT ) K ( (t SAT ) )

I RES I L I R I P (t SAT ) KI P
I P 1 (t SAT ) K

87L operates correctly if


1 2K cos( ) (K ) 2
1
SLP 2
1 K

Define Dependability Factor


1 2K cos( ) (K ) 2
DF
1 K

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Effect on 87L Internal Faults

87L correctly operates on internal faults if DF


> 0.7, that is, SLP2 need to be set less than
0.7
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Effect on 87L External Faults


IL IP
I R (t SAT ) KI P ( (t SAT ) 180 )
I DIFF I L I R I P (t SAT ) KI P ( (t SAT ) 180 )
I P 1 (t SAT ) K ( (t SAT ) )

I RES I L I R I P (t SAT ) KI P
I P 1 (t SAT ) K

87L misoperates if
1 K ( )
SLP 2 1 K

1 2K cos( ) (K ) 2

1
SLP 2 1 K

Define Security Factor


1 2K cos( ) (K ) 2
SF
1 K

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Effect on 87L External Faults


1
0.9

K=0.9
K=1.0
K=1.1

Misoperations

Secur i t y Fact or

0.8
0.7

SLP2=0.7

0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0

10

15

20

25

30

Ti me t o s at ur at i on ( 1/ 64 cyc)

There exists misoperation if time to


saturation is less than 2.6 ms when SLP2 is
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set to 0.7

Effect on 87L External Faults

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Techniques to Improve Tolerance


Add a portion of current distortions such as
harmonics, saturated CT signal and noise,
into the restraint signal; therefore, the
restraint region is adaptively increased.
Dynamically switch the differential settings
to more secure values to deal with external
faults. Normally, the more secure settings
would result in the larger restraint region.
Constantly use the transient bias as the
additional restraint signal. A delta signal is
mixed into the transient bias to increase the
restraint signal.
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Techniques Total Restraint


Total restraint = Traditional restraint
+ Weight factor *
Adaptive restraint
Imaginary (ILOC/IREM)

OPERATE

Error factor is high

REST.

Real (ILOC/IREM)

Error factor is low

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Techniques Weight Factor


Total restraint = Traditional restraint
+ Weight factor *
Adaptive restraint

Dynamically increase the weight of the


adaptive restraint portion in the total
restraint quantity, but for external faults only

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Techniques Adaptive Restraint


Total restraint = Traditional restraint
+ Weight factor *
Adaptive restraint

Adaptive restraint dynamically adjusts the


operating-restraint boundary.
Adaptive decision process is based on an online computation of measurement error.

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CT Saturation Analysis Tool


A practical CT saturation analysis tool
is required to
seamlessly incorporate the CT
performance and relay system application
utilize the commonly recognized CT
model and CT saturation algorithm
simulate the analog/digital signal
processing and data calculations exactly
existing in the line current differential
relay
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CT Saturation Analysis Tool

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CT Saturation Analysis Tool

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CT Saturation Analysis Tool


A practical CT saturation analysis tool
is able to
Analyze reliability of 87L during CT
saturation
Evaluate the differential relay security
Investigate the effect of adjusting 87L
settings
Choose the proper size of CT
Examine possibility of reducing CT
requirement
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Conclusions
Based on the simplified saturation
analysis,
The saturation caused by internal faults
will rarely result in the failure to operate
The saturation caused by external faults
introduces a spurious differential current
that may cause 87L to misoperate.

Adaptive restraint technique used in


87L to tolerate CT errors, reduce CT
requirement and improve relay security
Necessity, function requirement, and
example of a practical CT saturation
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Thank You
Questions?