25.

01 Q

The Three Emperors’ League included all of the following EXCEPT: Britain Germany Russia Austria

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25.01 A

The Three Emperors’ League included all of the following EXCEPT: Britain Germany Russia Austria

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25.01 E

EXPLANATION:
The Three Emperors’ League included all of the following EXCEPT: 1. Britain Bismarck’s first move was to establish the Three Emperors’ League in 1873. The League brought together the three great conservative empires of Germany, Austria, and Russia.
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25.02 Q

By the early 1880s, Bismarck had succeeded in isolating: Britain Russia France Italy

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25.02 A

By the early 1880s, Bismarck had succeeded in isolating: Britain Russia France Italy

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25.02 E

EXPLANATION:
By the early 1880s, Bismarck had succeeded in isolating: 3. France Bismarck’s policy was a complete success. He was allied with three of the great powers and friendly with the other, Great Britain, which held aloof from all alliances. France was isolated and no threat.
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25.03 Q

The Triple Entente included all of the following EXCEPT: Germany Britain France Russia

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25.03 A

The Triple Entente included all of the following EXCEPT: Germany Britain France Russia

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25.03 E

EXPLANATION: The Triple Entente included all of the following EXCEPT:

• Germany The Triple Entente, an informal, but powerful, association of Britain, France, and Russia, ranged against the Triple Alliance.

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25.04 Q

In 1908, Russia supported the Austrian annexation of:
Albania Bosnia and Herzegovina Serbia Macedonia

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25.04 A

In 1908, Russia supported the Austrian annexation of: Albania Bosnia and Herzegovina Serbia Macedonia

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25.04 E

EXPLANATION:
In 1908, Russia supported the Austrian annexation of:

2. Bosnia and Herzegovina In 1908, the Austrian and Russian governments decided to act quickly. They struck a bargain in which Russia agreed to support the Austrian annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina in return for Austrian backing for opening the Dardanelles to Russian warships.
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25.05 Q

World War I was sparked by the assassination of: Otto von Bismarck Archduke Francis Ferdinand Emperor Franz Joseph II Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg

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25.05 A

World War I was sparked by the assassination of: Otto von Bismarck Archduke Francis Ferdinand Emperor Franz Joseph II Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg

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25.05 E

EXPLANATION:
World War I was sparked by the assassination of:

2. Archduke Francis Ferdinand
On June 28, 1914, a young Serbian nationalist shot and killed Archduke Francis Ferdinand and his wife as they drove in an open car through the Bosnian capital of Sarajevo. News of the assassination produced outrage everywhere in Europe except in Serbia and was one of the final forces before the outbreak of World War I.
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25.06 Q

The most common explanation of the root causes of World War I focuses on:

• France’s failure to accept the results of the Franco-Prussian War • Britain’s refusal to accept Germany’s navy • German ambitions for a higher place in the international order • Austrian intransigence

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25.06 A

The most common explanation of the root causes of World War I focuses on:

• France’s failure to accept the results of the Franco-Prussian War • Britain’s refusal to accept Germany’s navy • German ambitions for a higher place in the international order • Austrian intransigence

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25.06 E

EXPLANATION:
The most common explanation of the root causes of World War I focuses on:

3. German ambitions for a higher place in the international order Although debate on the causes of the war continues, the most common opinion today is that German ambitions for a higher place in the international order under the new kaiser William II led to a new challenge to the status quo.
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25.07 Q

Germany’s initial plan for winning World War I was known as the: Grosskrieg Plan Siegfried Plan Wilhelm Plan Schlieffen Plan

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25.07 A

Germany’s initial plan for winning World War I was known as the: Grosskrieg Plan Siegfried Plan Wilhelm Plan Schlieffen Plan

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25.07 E

EXPLANATION:
Germany’s initial plan for winning World War I was known as the:

4. Schlieffen Plan Germany’s war plan, was based on ideas developed by Count Alfred von Schlieffen (1833–1913), chief of the German general staff from 1891 to 1906.

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25.08 Q

Churchill’s plan to knock Turkey out of the war was spoiled by: poor execution a lack of support from the navy a lack of support from the army a lack of caution on the part of the officers involved

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25.08 A

Churchill’s plan to knock Turkey out of the war was spoiled by: poor execution a lack of support from the navy a lack of support from the army a lack of caution on the part of the officers involved

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25.08 E

EXPLANATION:
Churchill’s plan to knock Turkey out of the war was spoiled by:

• poor execution
In 1915, the Allies tried to break the deadlock on the western front by going around it. The idea came chiefly from Winston Churchill (1874–1965), first lord of the British admiralty. This policy supposedly would knock Turkey from the war, bring help to the Balkan front, and ease communications with Russia. The success of Churchill’s plan depended on timing, speed, and daring leadership, but all of these were lacking. Worse, the execution of the attack was inept and overly cautious.
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25.09 Q

When the tsar abdicated, the Russian government fell into the hands of: reactionary aristocrats moderate socialists Lenin’s allies in Russia the Duma

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25.09 A

When the tsar abdicated, the Russian government fell into the hands of: reactionary aristocrats moderate socialists Lenin’s allies in Russia the Duma

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25.09 E

EXPLANATION:
When the tsar abdicated, the Russian government fell into the hands of:

4. the Duma
In early March 1917, strikes and worker demonstrations erupted in Petrograd. The ill-disciplined troops in the city refused to fire on the demonstrators. The tsar abdicated on March 15. The government of Russia fell into the hands of members of the Duma, who soon formed a provisional government composed chiefly of Constitutional Democrats (Cadets) with Western sympathies.
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25.10 Q

Lenin made his way into Russia in 1917 with the help of: France Spain Germany Austria

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25.10 A

Lenin made his way into Russia in 1917 with the help of: France Spain Germany Austria

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25.10 E

EXPLANATION:
Lenin made his way into Russia in 1917 with the help of:

3. Germany
The Germans, in their most successful attempt at subversion, had rushed the Bolshevik leader V. I. Lenin (1870–1924) in a sealed train from his exile in Switzerland across Germany to Petrograd. They hoped he would cause trouble for the revolutionary government.
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25.11 Q

Russia’s participation in World War I came to an end with the signing of the Treaty of: Brest-Litovsk Saint Petersburg Moscow Berlin

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25.11 A

Russia’s participation in World War I came to an end with the signing of the Treaty of: Brest-Litovsk Saint Petersburg Moscow Berlin

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25.11 E

EXPLANATION:
Russia’s participation in World War I came to an end with the signing of the Treaty of:

• Brest-Litovsk
The Bolshevik government also took Russia out of the war, which they believed benefited only capitalism. They signed an armistice with Germany in December 1917 and in March 1918 accepted the Treaty of BrestLitovsk, by which Russia yielded Poland, Finland, the Baltic states, and Ukraine. The Bolsheviks also agreed to pay a heavy war indemnity.
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25.12 Q

Germany’s defeat was made almost certain when: Austria made peace with the Allies the United States entered the war Italy made peace with the Allies Spain entered the war

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25.12 A

Germany’s defeat was made almost certain when: Austria made peace with the Allies the United States entered the war Italy made peace with the Allies Spain entered the war

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25.12 E

EXPLANATION:
Germany’s defeat was made almost certain when:

2. the United States entered the war
In March 1918, the Germans decided to gamble everything on one last offensive. They had no more reserves, and the entire nation was exhausted. In contrast, the arrival of American troops in everincreasing numbers bolstered the Allies. An Allied counteroffensive proved irresistible and the German high command knew the end was imminent.
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25.13 Q

After the war ended, large parts of the Ottoman Empire were placed under the control of: France Britain and France Britain the United States

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25.13 A

After the war ended, large parts of the Ottoman Empire were placed under the control of: France Britain and France Britain the United States

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25.13 E

EXPLANATION:
After the war ended, large parts of the Ottoman Empire were placed under the control of:

2. Britain and France The peace treaty signed in Paris in 1920 between Turkey and the Allies dismembered the Ottoman Empire, placing large parts of it, particularly the areas Arabs inhabited, under the control of Britain and France.
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25.14 Q

Wilson’s Fourteen Points set forth the right of nationalities to: economic independence fight defensive war self-determination ethnic purity

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25.14 A

Wilson’s Fourteen Points set forth the right of nationalities to: economic independence fight defensive war self-determination ethnic purity

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© 2006 Pearson Education, Inc.

25.14 E

EXPLANATION:
Wilson’s Fourteen Points set forth the right of nationalities to:

3. self-determination The Fourteen Points set forth the right of nationalities to self-determination as an absolute value; but in fact no one could draw the map of Europe to match ethnic groups perfectly with their homelands.

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