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SQUIDs

(Superconducting QUantum Interference Devices)

By Agnieszka Czeszumska

Talk Outline
Superconductivity
Josephson Tunneling
Phase of electron pairs
DC SQUID
Laboratory Setup
Applications

Why SQUIDs?
Can detect
extremely small
magnetic fields
For example,
read out TES
device

Superconductivity
Below certain temperature:
Resistanceless
supercurrent

Meissner effect

Superconductivity Explained
BCS Theory
Electron
lattice
interaction
Cooper pairs
Energy Gap
Coherence
Flux
Quantization

ns!
o
n
Pho

Superconductivity Explained
BCS Theory
Electron
lattice
interaction
Cooper pairs
Energy Gap
Coherence
Flux
Quantization

Two coupled electrons


with opposite momenta
and spins
Boson-like
Does not scatter resistanceless
Energetically favorable in
superconducting state

Superconductivity Explained
BCS Theory
Electron
lattice
interaction
Cooper pairs
Energy Gap
Coherence
Flux
Quantization

Superconductivity Explained
BCS Theory
Electron
lattice
interaction
Cooper pairs
Energy Gap
Coherence
Flux
Quantization

Can calculate phase and


amplitude at any point on
the wave
Coherence length
One wave equation
describes all Cooper pairs:

Superconductivity Explained
BCS Theory
Electron
lattice
interaction
Cooper pairs
Energy Gap
Coherence
Flux
Quantization

Magnetic flux around a


closed superconducting
current loop must be
quantized

One
fluxon

Josephson Tunneling
Josephson Junction small gap
between two superconductors
Cooper pairs can tunnel
Critical current

supercurrent

Phase difference
across the junction

Change in Phase

=P

Due to:
Current
Magnetic field
Josephson
Junctions

DC SQUID
Superconductor
Current loop
Two Josephson
Junctions

How it works
Phase change due to
external magnetic field

Due to B field

Current flow

Due to junctions

Voltage
change

Must be quantized

How it works

Aiding Detection
Gradiometer, Magnetometer, Voltometer

Lab Setup Two Stage

Characterisation
I V curve
V Phi curve

Other Applications
Beyond X-Ray
Astrophysics...
Medical imaging
(MEG)
Geology

References
A.C. Rose-Innes and E.H. Rhoderick, Introduction to
Superconductivity, 2nd ed., 1978
Kittel, Charles, Introduction to Solid State Physics, 6th ed.,
1986
Clarke, John, SQUIDs, Scientific American (August 1994)
STAR Cryoelectronics, Manual
SQUID Magnetometry,
http://www.cmp.liv.ac.uk/frink/thesis/thesis/node41.html
http://hyperphysics.phyastr.gsu.edu/hbase/solids/supcon.html#c1
Thank you Mark and Prof. McCammon for answering my
random questions
Special thanks to Emily Barrentine for help and resources