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Attracts fish to the surface

•Allowed farmer to observe fish behavior


•Observation of the general health of the
stock volume of feed consumed over a time
Evaluate
period
Improved FCR
Lowered overall feed costs
Less waste or uneaten fee in the pond
•Better pond condition
•Better water quality
Utilizewind for feed
dispersal
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EARLIER LATER
Simplest things to do with an Nutritionists researched and
extruder developed ideas
Simple became complicated

Simply add selected formulation Better feeds for the industry or


and pressure; feed that float is lower ingredient costs or improved
produced. nutritional benefit.
orn
C
2% l
. ea
29 m
ish
F
8%

o r ents
n i
Mi red
Ing

48.2%
Soybean Meal
32% PROTEIN
10% Rice Bran
or
Wheat Midlings

NRC, 1983
a PROBLEM
Types of feeds are relatively low in protein
Use of ingredients that are mainly low cost fillers

a DEMAND
A lower cost feeds (make the feeds in a simple way)
Optimization of the process

Supply Cost of Look for an alternative


of Fishmea protein source
Fishmea l
l
The USE of SOYBEAN
MEAL
To partially replace fishmeal cost in feed
formulation
Soybean meal, as well as fishmeal, should not be overheated in oil
extraction process for better functional properties (cross linking of
protein chains) to assist in holding the pellet together.

a STUDY

For every 2%
1% Starch
Good Functional FORMUL
Requiremen
Protein A
t
Preparation of the raw materials

•Based on the nutrient needs of the animal


Grind to a size fineness
•Particle should be less than 1/3 of the die opening
•Decide after understanding the market needs
Mix
Introduce evenly into the extrusion
system
Condition
Dry
Coat
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EARLIER LATER

Retention time of 20 to 30 Retention time of 180


seconds seconds
Cooked in a dry fashion Steam, water and other
liquid ingredient are added
BACK
a DEVELOPMENT PRESSURE
On-Stream Adjustment VALVE
•To adjust die restriction while extrusion
system is in operation
Bulk density range of +/-
Size
25% and uniformity of cell
structure
Starch gelatinization
Shape definition

The more beautiful the pellets, the more the farmer like them as it
shows care in the feed manufacturing process.
MOISTURE VARIANCE

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Past Tech Present Tech

Equates to 1,500 to 3,000 Can purchase an additional


tonnes/year of lost water 1,500 to 3,00 tonnes/year of
dry raw materials
an ADVANCEMENT

Monitoring the humidity of the exhaust


air •Reduces fuel cost

Enable the dryer to exhaust air at a pre-set


saturation
ADDING

Probiotics

Enzyme
s
Vitamins

Oil
•Pellets with more water pick up less oil or uneven
coating