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• • • • • • Definition Classification Signs and Symptoms Causes Treatment First Aid Outline: .

Definition of seizure: .• sudden surge of electrical activity in the brain • usually affects how a person appears or acts for a short time • Many things can occur during a seizure. whatever the brain and body can do normally can also occur.

• 1) Focal (partial) seizures Types of focal (partial) seizures are: > Focal seizure >Focal dyscognitive seizures Classification: .

Myoclonic .Eyelid Myoclonia • Tonic-Clonic • Clonic • Tonic • Atonic • Myoclonic .Myoclonic atonic .Myoclonic tonic .Myoclonic absence .Absence with special features .Typical .• 2) Generalised seizures • Absence .Atypical absence .

• 3) Unknown • a grouping of seizures that cannot be diagnosed as either a focal or generalized seizure and are thus grouped as unknown .

• Control of the seizure can be accomplished by suppressing the action potential via manipulation of sodium and potassium ion permeabilities. The resultant motor and/or sensory activity manifested by and experienced by the patient is clinically described as a seizure. déjà vu. If this occurs. the corresponding muscle fascicles may begin to contract inappropriately. • The focus may spread and involve various areas of the brain.• The pathways for information exchange between the brain and musculature can be divided into two general groups: the afferent (sensory) and output or efferent (motor) • A neuron or group of neurons in the brain can become hyperexcitable or irritable due to hypoxia. Anatomy and Physiology . This will render the axon refractory to the action potential. hypoglycemia. or hallucinations. or electrolyte abnormalities. ischemia. the corresponding motor or sensory area will be affected. such as paresthesia. thus producing seizure-like activity. leading to chaotic. uninhibited discharge of electrical activity of various neurons in the brain. leading to either motor symptoms such as tonic-clonic contractions or sensory manifestations of seizure-like activity. • Depending on where the focus of this aberrant discharge is in a particular region of the brain. These affect the action potential and cause these nerve cells to discharge action potentials irregularly. or block the neurotransmitter from binding to its receptor site.

This include: • Sudden feelings of fear and anxiousness • Feeling sick to your stomach • Dizziness • Changes in vision Symptoms that indicate a seizure is in progress: • A blackout of time.Some seizures occur with warning signs before the seizure takes place. such as grunting • Losing control of bladder or bowel movement • Sudden mood changes Signs and Symptoms: . rapid eye movements • Making unusual noises. followed by confusion • Uncontrollable muscle spasms • Drooling or frothing at the mouth • Sudden falling • Experiencing a strange taste in your mouth • Clenching teeth • Sudden.

Symptoms occur suddenly and may include: • Changes in behavior such as picking at one’s clothing • Eye movements • Grunting and snorting • Shaking of the entire body • Temporary stop in breathing • Uncontrollable muscle spasms with twitching and jerking limbs .

muscle rigidity Brief loss of consciousness • Myoclonic • Clonic • Tonic • Atonic Sporadic (isolated). jerking movements Repetitive. jerking movements Muscle stiffness. rigidity Loss of muscle tone .Generalized Seizures (Produced by the entire brain) Symptoms • “Grand Mal” or Generalized Tonic-Clonic • Absence Unconsciousness. convulsions.

Emotional or Thought Changes: • Déjà vu • Jamais vu • Smells • Sounds • Tastes • Visuals loss or blurring • “Strange” feelings • Fear/panic • Pleasant feelings • Racing thoughts • Physical Changes: • Dizzy or lightheaded • Headache • Nausea or other stomach feelings • Numbness or tingling in part of the body . Sensory.Common symptoms before a seizure: Awareness.

unconscious. or “pass out” • Unable to hear • Sounds may be strange or different • Unusual smells • Unusual tastes • Loss of vision or unable to see • Blurry vision • Flashing lights • Formed visual hallucinations • Numbness. Sensory. feeling spacey • Periods of forgetfulness or memory lapses • Distracted. or electric shock like feeling in body. Emotional or Thought Changes: • Loss of awareness • Confused. arm or leg • Out of body sensations • Feeling detached • Body parts feels or looks different • Feeling of panic. fear. daydreaming • Loss of consciousness. impending doom .Common symptoms during a seizure: Awareness. tingling.

waving • dressing or undressing • walking or running • Repeated purposeful movements • Convulsion • Losing control of urine or stool unexpectedly • Sweating • Change in skin color • Pupils may dilate or appear larger than normal • Biting of tongue • Difficulty breathing • Heart Racing . involve the face. drooling • Repeated blinking of eyes. eyes may move to one side or look upward. like wringing. twitching or jerking movements • Rigid or tense muscles • Repeated non-purposeful movements. or staring • Lack of movement or muscle tone • Tremors. called automatisms. playing with buttons or objects in hands. arms or legs.Physical Changes: • Difficulty talking • Unable to swallow. such as • Lip smacking or chewing movements • repeated movements of hands.

Common symptoms after a seizure: • Awareness. Sensory. exhausted or sleep for minutes or hours • Headache or other pain • Nausea or upset stomach • Thirsty • General weakness or weak in one part or side of the body • Urge to go to the bathroom or lose control of bowel or bladder . upset • Scared • Anxious • Frustrated. lightheaded or dizzy • Feeling depressed. sad. embarrassed. Emotional or Thought Changes: • Slow to respond or not able to respond right away • Sleepy • Confused • Memory loss • Difficulty talking or writing • Feeling fuzzy. ashamed • Physical Changes: • May have injuriesMay feel tired.

including meningitis Brain tumor Drug abuse Electric shock Epilepsy Heart disease Heat illness Poisoning Stroke Causes: .• • • • • • • • • • Abnormal level of sodium or glucose in the blood Brain infections.

First aid .

• Bring the Patient to the hospital if: • seizure lasts longer than 5 minutes or • if another seizure begins soon after the first. • Remove sharp objects (glasses.If someone is having a seizure: • Loosen clothing around the person's neck. This can also cause injury. • If vomiting occurs. or • if the person cannot be awakened after the movements have stopped . • Do not try to hold the person down or restrain them. furniture. the person may be confused and should not be left alone. This can result in injury. • After the seizure. this helps make sure that the vomit is not inhaled into the lungs. it is helpful to lay the person on their side to maintain an open airway and prevent the person from inhaling any secretions. • Do not insert any objects in the person's mouth. • After a seizure. and other objects) from around the person to prevent injury.

Treatment • Carbamazepine (Carbatrol. You may experience side effects. . such as drowsiness. confusion or swelling in the feet and legs. produce less pronounced frequency-dependent block • the use of the anticonvulsants gabapentin (Neurontin) or pregabalin (Lyrica) to help relieve pain caused by damaged nerves. which causes searing facial pain that feels like an electric shock. • Medications from other drug classes with distinct mechanisms of pain relief (such as antidepressants) may be used in combination with anti-seizure class medications if anti-seizure medications fail to control your pain. which are believed to be accessory subunits of voltage-dependent calcium channels that exist in four homologous forms. Tegretol) is widely prescribed for trigeminal neuralgia. *Carbamazepine: blocks voltage-activated sodium channels. only types 1 and 2 bind them with high affinity • Because these drugs have few side effects and are usually well tolerated. *Gabapentin and pregabalin: act by binding to a2d proteins. dizziness. These side effects are limited by starting with a low dosage and slowly increasing it. they are often the first medications to try for neuropathic pain.