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notes on work and energy

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- Problem
- WORK POWER AND ENERGY
- Richard J. Blakely-Potential Theory in Gravity and Magnetic Applications (Stanford-Cambridge Program) (1995)(1).pdf
- Chapter 14
- Friction
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When a force acts on an object while

displacement occurs, the force has done

work on the object.

The magnitude of work (W) is the product

of the amount of the force applied along

the direction of displacement and the

magnitude of the displacement.

W = Fcosx

Units of Work

N . m = Joule (J)

+ Work

If the force has a

component in the

direction of the

displacement.

- Work

If the force has a

component in the

opposite direction of

the displacement.

The force from person

does _____ work.

The weight force is

doing

_____ work.

As person lowers box

how does sign of the

work change?

Example 1

the work done by the force on the

object, from most positive to most

negative. [Displacement is to the right

and of the same magnitude.]

Example 2

4.

0

5.

kg

0

m

= 0.30

30o

mass slides 5.0 m down a 30o incline where

the coefficient of kinetic friction is 0.30.

F (N)

F

WF = Fx

x

x (m)

W = Fd

Why can the tractor pull out the stump with

the pulley?

What are other examples of machines that

increase applied force?

Since

W = Fcosx

and

A . B = ABcos

then

W = F . x

Example 3

A particle moving in the xy plane undergoes a

^

^

displacement x = (2.0 i + 3.0 j) m as a

^

^

constant force F = (5.0 i + 2.0 j) N acts on the

particle.

a) Calculate the magnitudes of the

displacement and the force.

xf

W = Fxx

xi

As x approaches 0,

xf

lim Fxx =

x 0

F dx

xi

Therefore,

xf

W=

F dx

xi

Example 1

x, as shown above. Calculate the work

done by the force as the particle

moves from x = 0 to x = 6.0 m.

Example 2

attracted to the Sun by a force given by

F= -

1.3 x 1022

x2

the Sun-probe separation distance.

Determine how much work is done by

the Sun on the probe as the probe-Sun

separation changes from 1.5 x 1011 m to

2.3 x 1011 m.

Graphical Solution

~ 60 squares

= 5 x 108 J

Hookes Law

force exerted by

spring

Fs = -kx

spring constant

in N/m

position relative to

equilibrium position

exerted by spring is always directed

opposite to the displacement.

stretched spring

equilibrium position

compressed spring

xf

Ws =

F dx =

xi

(-kx)dx =

kx2

Ws = kx2

Work done by the spring force is positive

because the force is in the same direction

as displacement.

xf

Ws =

xi

xf

Ws =

xi

Fappdx =

xf

xi

Example 3

constant (k) is shown above. The spring is hung

vertically, and an object of mass m is attached to

its lower end. Under the action of the load mg,

the spring stretches a distance d from its

equilibrium position.

mass of 0.55 kg, what is the spring

constant of the spring ?

stretches through this distance ?

elevator with an upward vertical

acceleration a. Will the unaware experimenter

arrive at the same value of the spring constant ?

Example 4

If it takes 4.00 J of work to stretch a Hookes

Law spring 10.0 cm from its unstressed

length, determine the extra work required to

stretch it an additional 10.0 cm.

Example 5

A light spring with spring constant 1200 N/m

is hung from an elevated support. From its

lower end a second light spring is hung,

which has spring constant 1800 N/m. An

object of mass 1.50 kg is hung at rest from

the lower end of the second spring.

a) Find the total extension distance of the

pair of springs.

pair of springs as a system. We

describe these springs as in series.

Example 6

^

object as the object moves in the xdirection from the origin to x = 5.00 m.

object by the force.

Work done by F is

xf

W =

F dx

xi

xf

ma dx

W =

xi

xf

W =

xi

dv

m

dx

dt

xf

(by chain-rule) W =

xi

vf

W =

dv

m

dx

mv

dx

dx

dt

dv

vi

W = mvf2 mvi2

Kinetic Energy

KE = mv2

If work done on a system only

changes its speed, the work done

by the net force equals the

change in KE of the system.

W = KEf KEi = KE

Example 1

right along a horizontal, frictionless surface by

a constant horizontal force of 12 N. Find the

speed of the block after it has moved 3.0 m.

Example 2

truck using a ramp. He claims that less

work would be required to load the truck if

the length L of the ramp were increased. Is

his statement valid ?

Example 3

varies with position as shown above. The particle

starts from rest at x = 0. What is its speed at

a) x = 5.00 m

b) x = 10.00 m

c) x = 15.00 m

Fx = max

Fx)x = (max)x

ax =

vf - v i

t

x = (vi + vf) t

Fx)x = m

vf - v i

t

) (v + v ) t

i

a particle the book is not a particle !

-fkx = KE

KE in General

-fkd = KE

d = length of any

path followed

OR

KEf = KEi - fkd + Wother forces

Example 1

A 6.0 kg block initially at rest is pulled to

the right along a horizontal surface by a

constant horizontal force of 12 N.

a) Find the speed of the block after it has

moved 3.0 m if the surfaces in

contact have a coefficient of kinetic

friction of 0.15.

angle as shown below. At what angle

should the force be applied to achieve

the largest possible speed after the block

has moved 3.0 m to the right ?

Friction

The result of a friction force is to

transform KE into internal energy, and

the increase in internal energy is equal

is equal to the decrease in KE.

Esystem = KE + Eint = 0

-fkd + Eint = 0

Eint = fkd

Example 2

A 40.0 kg box initially at rest is pushed 5.00

m along a rough, horizontal floor with a

constant applied horizontal force of 130 N. If

the coefficient of friction between box and

floor is 0.300, find

a) the work done by the applied force

box-floor system due to friction

force

Lesson 5 : Power

done

Time interval

is different

Average Power

time rate of energy transfer

P=

W

t

Instantaneous Power

P = lim

t 0

P=

dW

dt

W

t

F . dx

dt

dW

dt

.

F

v

=

Units of Power

SI unit of power is J/s or the Watt (W).

1 W = 1 J/s = 1 kg . m2/s3

power is the horsepower (hp).

1 hp = 746 W

The energy transferred in 1 h at the

constant rate of 1kW = 1000 J/s.

1 kWh = (103 W)(3600 s) = 3.60 x 106 J

power.

Example 1

carrying passengers having a combined mass

of 200 kg. A constant friction force of 4000 N

retards its motion upward, as shown above.

required to lift the elevator car at a

constant speed of 3.00 m/s ?

the instant the speed of the elevator is v if

the motor is designed to

provide the

elevator car with an

upward

acceleration of 1.00 m/s2 ?

Example 2

Find the instantaneous power delivered by

gravity to a 4 kg mass 2 s after it has fallen

from rest.

Example 3

Find the instantaneous power delivered by

the net force at t = 2 s to a 0.5 kg mass

moving in one dimension according to x(t) =

1/3 t3.

Example 4

hill, as shown above. An automotive engineer

measures the magnitude of the total resistive force

to be ft = (218 + 0.70v2) N where v is in m/s.

Determine the power the engine must deliver to the

wheels as a function of speed.

Example 5 : AP 2003 #1

100 kg

pulled along the x-axis by a student. The

box slides across a rough surface, and its

position x varies with time t according to

the equation x = 0.5t3 + 2t, where x is in

meters and t is in seconds.

a) Determine the speed of the box at time

t = 0.

time t.

i. The kinetic energy of the box.

in the interval t = 0 to t = 2 s.

on the box by the student in the interval t

= 0 to t = 2 s would be greater

than, less

than, or equal to the answer

in part c).

Justify your answer.

____Greater than

to

____ Equal

system = book + Earth

Work done on

system by external

agent in lifting

book

KE = 0

(vi = 0, vf = 0)

When book is at yb, the energy of the

system has potential to become KE.

When lifting at constant velocity,

^ .

^

W = (Fapp) x = (mgj) [(yb ya)j] = mgyb - mgya

.

Ug = mgy

W = Ug

Units for Ug are Joules (J). Like work

and KE, Ug is a scalar quantity.

Example 1

A bowling ball held by a careless bowler

slips from the bowlers hands and drops

on the bowlers toe. Choosing floor level

as the y = 0 point of your coordinate

system, estimate the change in

gravitational PE of the ball-Earth system

as the ball falls. Repeat the calculation,

using the top of the bowlers head as the

origin of coordinates.

Example 2

A 400 N child is in a swing that is attached

to ropes 2.00 m long. Find the

gravitational potential energy of the childEarth system relative to the childs lowest

position when

a) the ropes are horizontal

b) the ropes make a 30o angle with the

vertical

c) the child is at the bottom of the circular

arc.

the work done by the

gravitational force on the

book is

^

.

From the work-kinetic energy theorem,

Won book = KEbook

KEbook = mgyb - mgya

For the book-Earth system,

mgyb mgya = -(mgya mgyb) = -(Uf Ui) = -Ug

So,

KE = -Ug

KE + Ug = 0

This sum of KE and Ug is called

mechanical energy.

Emech = KE + U

represents all

types of potential

energy

KEf + Uf = KEi + Ui

Conservation of Mechanical Energy

(isolated, frictionless system)

Elastic potential energy

stored in a spring

Us = kx2

Example 1

A ball of mass m is

dropped from a height h

above the ground, as

shown.

a) Neglecting air resistance,

determine the speed of

the ball when it is at a

height y above the

ground.

the instant of release it already has an

initial upward speed vi at the initial

altitude h.

Example 2

mass m attached to a light cord of

length L. The sphere is released from

rest at point A when the cord makes an

angle A with the vertical, and the pivot

at P is frictionless.

at the lowest point B.

Example 3

The launching mechanism of a

toy gun consists of a spring of

unknown spring constant.

When the spring is compressed

0.120 m, the gun, when fired

vertically, is able to launch a

35.0 g projectile to a maximum

height of 20.0 m above the

position of the projectile before

firing.

a) Neglecting all resistive forces,

determine the spring constant.

moves through the equilibrium position

the spring (where xB = 0.120 m).

of

Example 4

A bead slides without friction around a loopthe-loop. The bead is released from a height

h = 3.50R.

a) What is its speed at point A ?

its mass is 5.00 g ?

Example 5

a distance d down a frictionless incline of angle

. While sliding, it contacts an unstressed

spring of negligible mass as shown above. The

object slides an additional distance x as it is

brought momentarily to rest by compression of

the spring (of spring constant k). Find the initial

separation d between object and spring.

Example 6 : AP 1989 # 1

shown above, a vertical distance h above the

ground. It slides down an inclined track, around a

circular loop of radius 0.5 m, then up another

incline that forms an angle of 30o with the

horizontal. The block slides off the track with a

speed of 4 m/s at point C, which is a height of 0.5 m

above the ground. Assume the entire track to be

frictionless and air resistance to be negligible.

the forces acting on the block when

it is at point B, which is 0.5 m above

the ground.

exerted by the track on the block

when it is at point B.

the ground attained by the block

after it leaves the track.

configuration, but is NOT frictionless, is

used. With this track it is found that if

the

block is to reach point C with a speed of 4

m/s, the height h must be 2 m. Determine

the work done by the frictional force.

Example 7 : AP 1985 # 2

is shown above. The box is slowly rotated

counter-clockwise. When the box makes an angle

with the horizontal, the block of mass m just

starts to slide, and at this instant the box is

stopped from rotating. Thus at angle , the block

slides a distance d, hits the spring of force

constant k, and compresses the spring a distance

x before coming to rest.

expression for each of the following.

a) s, the coefficient of static friction

of the block-spring system from the start

of the block down the incline to the

moment at which it comes to rest on the

compressed spring

Conservative Forces

1. The work done by a conservative force

on a particle moving between any two

points is independent of the path

taken

by the particle.

2. The work done by a conservative force

on a particle moving through any

closed path is zero. (A closed path is one

in which the beginning and end points are

identical.)

a) Gravitational Force

Wg = mgyi - mgyf

yi

Fg

Wg depends on y

coordinates and is

independent of the path

Wg is zero when the object

moves over any closed

path (where yi = yf).

yf

Fg

Ws = kxi2 kxf2

Ws depends on y

coordinates and is

independent of the path

Wg is zero when the object

moves over any closed

path (where yi = yf).

Nonconservative Forces

A force that does not satisfy the

properties of a conservative force.

Work done by force depends on the path.

Nonconservative forces

acting within a system

cause a change in the

mechanical energy of the

system.

done against friction is less than if book is

pushed along curved brown path.

Friction force is a nonconservative force.

system are conservative, then the mechanical

energy of the system is conserved.

If some of the forces acting on objects within

a system are nonconservative, then the

mechanical energy of the system changes.

If a friction force acts within a system,

Emech = KE + U = -fkd

Example 1

A 3.00 kg crate slides down a ramp. The

ramp is 1.00 m in length and inclined at an

angle of 30.0o. The crate starts from rest at

the top, experiences a constant friction

force of magnitude 5.00 N, and continues

to move a short distance on the horizontal

floor after it leaves the ramp. Use energy

methods to determine the speed of the

crate at the bottom of the ramp.

Example 2

A child of mass m rides

on an irregularly curved

slide of height h = 2.00 m.

The child starts from rest

at the top.

at the bottom,

assuming no friction is present.

child, how much mechanical energy does

the system lose ? Assume that vf = 3.00

m/s and m = 20.0 kg.

Example 3

a frictionless pulley. The block of mass m1 lies on a

horizontal surface and is connected to a spring of force

constant k. The system is released from rest when the

spring is unstretched. If the hanging block of mass m2 falls

a distance h before coming to rest, calculate the coefficient

of kinetic friction between the block m1 and the surface.

The work done by a conservative

force equals the decrease in PE of

the system.

xf

Wc =

xi

dx = -U

xf

U = Uf Ui = -

F

xi

dx

in the same direction.

F

F

equiibrium

Ug is negative

Us is negative

xf

Uf (x) = -

F

xi

dx + Ui

dU = -Fx dx

dU

Fx = dx

acting on an object within a system equals

the negative derivative of the potential

energy of the system with respect to x.

Gravitational PE

dUg

Fg = dy

d

Fg = dy

Fg = -mg

(mgy)

Elastic PE

dUs

Fs = dx

d

Fs = (1/2 kx2)

dx

Fs = -kx

(Hookes Law)

Example 1

Consider the potential energy of two

molecules given by

U=

A

r12

B

r6

the two molecules.

KE

PE

Negative slope

equals F

Stable equilibrium

U(x) is a minimum

negative slope of the curve.

F=

dU

= -kx

dx

minima, the force will be 0.

Stable equilibrium points will be

located at the minima.

Fx is negative

Fx is positive

Acceleration

away from x = 0

Acceleration

away from x = 0

unstable equilibrium

Example 1

For the potential energy curve shown below,

negative, or zero at the five points

indicated.

neutral equilibrium.

x = 9.5 m

Example 2

A particle moves along a line where the

potential energy of its system depends on its

position r as graphed below. In the limit as r

increases without bound, U(r) approaches +1J.

particle. Indicate whether each is a

point

of stable, unstable, or neutral

equilibrium.

energy of the system is in what range ?

Determine

c) the range of positions where the particle

can be found.

energy.

the additional energy that it would have

to be given in order for the particle to

move out to r infinity .

Example 3

(having width D) filled with man-eating crocodiles to save

Tarzan from danger. She must swing into a wind exerting

constant horizontal force F, on a vine having length L and

initially making an angle with the vertical.

and = 50.0o,

a) with what minimum speed must Jane

begin her swing in order to just make it

the other side ?

to

Jane must swing back across the river.

With what minimum speed must they

begin their swing ? Assume that Tarzan

has a mass of 80.0 kg.

Example 4 : AP 1987 # 2

The following graph shows the potential energy U(x)

of a particle as a function of its position x.

particle.

energy of 4.0 J, as shown by the dashed

line on the graph.

b) Determine the kinetic energy of the

particle at the following positions :

i. x = 2.0 m

ii. x = 4.0 m

x = 0.5 m ? Explain.

x = 5.0 m ? Explain.

of the conservative force acting on the

particle as a function of x, for 0<x<7 m.

Example 5 : AP 1995 # 2

A particle of mass m moves in a conservative

force field described by the potential energy

function U(r) = a(r/b + b/r), where a and b are

positive constants and r is the distance from the

origin. The graph of U(r) has the following shape.

determine the following :

i. The position ro at which the potential

energy is a minimum.

of r on the graph below, considering a force

directed away from the origin to be positive,

and a force directed toward the origin to be

negative.

c) In terms of Uo and m, determine the speed

of the particle when it is at r = ro.

be used to determine where, if ever, the

particle will again come to rest. It is not

necessary to solve for this position.

motion of the particle over a long period

time.

of

charges and inverse square of distance

1786: Antoine Lavoisier, distinction between elements and compounds

1787: Antoine Lavoisier, system for naming chemicals

1787: Jacques-Alexander Charles, law of gas expansion with temperature

1788: Joseph Lagrange, Lagrangian mechanics

1788: John Hunter, Diffusion of heat

1789: Antoine Lavoisier, Conservation of mass in chemical reactions

1789: Martin Klaproth, elements zirconium and uranium in compounds

1790: Definition of metric system in France

1790: Adair Crawford, element strontium in compounds

1791: William Gregor, element titanium in compounds

1794: Johann Gadolin, element yttrium in compounds

1794: Pierre Laplace, analysis of Newtonian black hole

1796: Alessandro Volta, chemical batteries and voltage

1797: Henry Cavendish, measured the gravitational constant with a torsion

balance

1797: Nicholas Vauquelin, element berylium idnetified in gem stones

1797: Nicholas Vauquelin, element chromium

1798: Benjamin Thompson, heat generated equals work done

1798: M. Klaproth, isolation of element tellurium

1798: Humphry Davy, Transmission of heat through vacuum

1798: Benjamin Rumford, experimental relation between work done and

heat generated

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