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MM207

Pratik Babhulkar

(140100013)

Im portance of M aterialScience

We come across number of materials in our

day to day life.

In various fields of engineering, one has to

select material to be used.

One needs to know the material properties like

strength, density and some special

characteristics.

Thus it is important for us to learn the material

science.

Approx Classifi

cation of M aterials

Metals

Materials are

broadly classified in

these categories

Ceramics

Polymers

Elastome

rs

Glasses

Hybrid

s

materials obtained

from composition of

two or more types of

materials so that we

can incorporate best

of these materials in

this hybrid

Comparison of some

properties of these

materials is shown in

next slides

M etals

Materials in this group are composed of one or

more metallic elements (e.g., iron,

aluminum, copper, titanium, gold, and nickel), and

often also nonmetallic elements

(e.g., carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen) in relatively

small amounts.

These are the crystalline materials in which ions

are indirectly connected through the field of free

electrons surrounding them.

Ceram ics

Ceramic is an inorganic, non metallic solid with

crystalline, partly crystalline or amorphous structure.

Ceramics are compounds between metallic and nonmetallic elements; they are most frequently oxides,

nitrides, and carbides.

Properties

High elastic moduli

Brittle.

Tensile (Fracture) strength is less than compressive

(Crushing) strength.

Polym ers

Polymer is a large molecule composed of repeating

structural units.

Many of them are organic compounds that are

chemically based on carbon, hydrogen, and other nonmetallic elements

Properties

Low elastic moduli

Large elastic deflections

Elastom ers

Elastomers are the material which have low elastic

moduli, which show great extensibility and flexibility

when it is stressed but return to original dimensions or

almost so when deforming stress is removed.

They are a type of polymer. They are amorphous in

nature.

Properties

Youngs moduli are too low

M etallic foam

(Advanced m aterial)

o Ametal foamis a cellular structure

consisting of a solidmetal,

frequentlyaluminium, as well as a large

volume fraction of gas-filledpores.

o The pores can be sealed (closedcellfoam), or they can form an

interconnected network (open-cell foam).

Uses

Can be used in aerospace applications,

prosthetics, design, architecture.

D im ensionalRange-Scientifi

c and

engineering disciplines

Time

and

distanc

e

dimen

sional

ranges

Stress vs Strain

The graph shown aside shows

stress strain behaviour of a

typical material

The linear part upto A is the

elastic region where the material

obeys the hookes law. A is the

proportional limit.

After A the non-linear

deformation starts. i.e. Plastic

deformation starts. The process

just after elastic region is called

yielding.

Then stress necessary to

continue plastic deformation

increases and eventually reaches

its maximum called Ultimate

stress.

cross section

ultimate stress is uniform

throughout the tensile test

specimen.

At the ultimate stress a

small neck (constriction)

occurs.

Further deformation gets

confined to the neck area

and eventually the sample

fractures.

The fracture strength

corresponds to the stress

during the fracture.

oAs we reach the ultimate

stress, the deformation is

confined to neck area and

thus the actual instantaneous

area (A) is decreasing rapidly.

oSo the stress associated with

the force after considering this

cross sectional area is called

TRUE STRESS.

oTrue Strain is instantaneous

strain.

oTrue stress and strain are

defined in next page

original cross sectional area of the specimen.

S- Engineering stress E-engineering strain

- True strain

-True stress

True

stress==S(1+E)

S=P/A

PLoad

A Original area of

cross section

True

strain==ln(1+E)

shows the true

stress and lower

one is

engineering

stress

While two atoms are approaching, the net force

between them is summation of attractive and repulsive

forces.

When the forces balance each other, net force is zero

and atoms are in equilibrium at some specific interatomic distance.

Thus the atomic bond is formed. The potential energy of

this system is related to the forces as:

potential energy on inter-atomic

distance is shown by this graph.

The dotted lines show individual

attractive and repulsive energies and

forces.

The bond is formed at minimum

potential energy or zero net force.

On an atomic scale, macroscopic

elastic strain is manifested as small

changes in the inter-atomic spacing

and the stretching of inter-atomic

bonds.

The magnitude of the modulus of

elasticity is a measure of the

resistance

to separation of adjacent atoms, that

is, the inter-atomic bonding forces.

Hence ,

Strength vs Density

Specific strength=Strength/Weight

M etals

Atomic Structure (key points)

1. Metals have loosely bound valence electrons.

2. They are easily available and referred as free

electrons.

. Atomic Bonding in Solid

1. The type of bond in metals is metallic bond. In metals,

valence electrons are not bound to any particular atom

in the solid and are more or less free to drift

throughout the entire metal.

2. Thus these electrons create a pool (electron cloud) of

negative charge.

nuclei form what are called ion cores, which possess a

net positive charge equal in magnitude to the total

valence electron charge per atom

positive core from repulsive forces.

Again it also acts as glue by creating

a strong attractive force with positive

cores.

Those makes the metal strong.

The atoms of metallic substances are closely

positioned to neighbouring atoms in one of two

common arrangements.

The first arrangement is known asbodycentred cubic. In this arrangement, each atom

is positioned at the centre of eight others.

The other is known asface-centred cubic. In

this arrangement, each atom is positioned in

the centre of six faces.

Bravaic Lattice

A crystalline material is one in which the atoms are

situated in a repeating or periodic array over large

atomic distances. There are following 7 broad ways in

which atoms are found arranged in nature.

The 7 lattice systems are :

* Cubic

* Hexagonal

* Rhombohedral

* Triclinic

* Tetragonal

* Orthorhombic

* Monoclinic

Cubic lattice

Simple

cubic

Body

centred

Facecentred

unit cell=1

unit cell=2

unit cell=4

Packing factor=52.4%

Packing factor=68%

Packing factor=74%

Co-ordination no=6

Co-ordination no=8

Co-ordination no=12

Hexagonal

Triclinic

Rhombohedra

l

unit cell=6

Packing factor=74%

Co-ordination no=12

Tetragonal

(Simple)

Tetragonal Body

centred

Simple

Base-centred

Body centred

Face centred

M onoclinic Crystal

Simple

Base centred

Engineering M etallurgy

PPT 3-5

MM207

140100013

Pratik Babhulkar

Content

Polymorphic transformation

Stacking sequence

Effect of temperature on Youngs Modulus

(Modulus of elasticity)

Miller Indices

-iron: When iron first

solidifies at 1538 C, it is in

B.C.C. (body-centred cubic)

-iron: As it is cooled, it

changes to F.C.C. (912 C

1394 C)

-iron: Then it becomes

B.C.C. (non-magnetic)

-iron: Becomes magnetic

at 768 C (Curies

Temperature for iron)

Curies Temperature:

Ferromagnetic atom

becomes paramagnetic at

this temperature

Lattice Parameter: Unit

Temperatu

re range

(C)

Upto 768

Nam

e

-Iron

(Ferromagnetic

)

Lattice Crystal

paramet Structu

er

re

()

2.86

BCC

768-912

-Iron

(Paramagnetic)

2.86

BCC

912-1394

-Iron

3.65

FCC

1394-1538

(Until it liqifies)

-Iron

2.93

BCC

Stacking sequence

(3D )

ABAB......

ABCABC......

hexagonal closed packing while

ABCABC... Packing creates Facecentred cubic packing

You n g s m od u lu s d ep en d en ce on

tem p eratu re

Generally ,

Elastic

modulus of a

material

decreases on

increasing its

temperature.

M iller Indices

Points

Directions

Planes

cell may be specified in terms of its coordinates as

fractional multiples of the unit cell edge lengths

(i.e., in terms of a, b,and c).

Thus, the position of P is designated

using coordinates q r s with values that are less

than or equal to unity.

Do not separate these coordinates by commas.

The example of how the point co-ordinates are

assigned is shown in next slide

The manner in

which the q, r,

and s

coordinates at

point P within

the

unit cell are

determined is

shown in this

figure

The q coordinate

(which is a

fraction)

corresponds to

The respective r and s coordinates forthe

the y and z

axes are determined similarly. The co-ordinates

of

distance qa

some special points are given in next slide

along the x axis,

shows the fractional lengths

and point co-ordinates of

some special points in cubic

crystal.

Point Number

from above

figure

Fractional lengths

X axis

Y-axis

Z-axis

Point coordinates

000

100

110

010

001

101

111

011

Crystallographic direction

A crystallographic direction is defined as a line

between two points, or a vector.

The following steps are used to determine the three

directional indices:

1. A vector of convenient length is positioned such

that it passes through the origin of the

coordinate system. Any vector may be

translated throughout the crystal lattice without

alteration, if parallelism is maintained.

2. The length of the vector projection on each of

the three axes is determined; these are

measured in terms of the unit cell dimensions a,

b, and c.

3. These three numbers are multiplied or divided

are enclosed in square brackets, thus: [u v w].

The u, v, and w integers correspond to the

reduced projections along the x, y, and z axes,

respectively.

5. negative indices are also possible, which are

represented by a bar over the appropriate

index.

6. e.g. [1 1 1] and [1 1 1] are directly opposite

This figure shows some common

directions.

directions like

edge of the unit cell [1 0 0]

Diagonal of the face [1 1 0]

Body diagonal of the unit cell [1 1

1]

Crystallographic Planes

Crystallographic planes are specified by three Miller

indices as (hkl). The procedure used to determine the

h, k, and l index numbers is as follows:

1. If the plane passes through the selected origin,

either another parallel plane must be constructed

within the unit cell by an appropriate translation, or

a new origin must be established at the corner of

another unit cell.

2. At this point the crystallographic plane either

intersects or parallels each of the three axes; the

length of the planar intercept for each axis is

determined in terms of the lattice parameters a, b,

and c.

3. The reciprocals of these numbers are taken. A plane

the set of smallest integers by multiplication or

division by a common factor

5. Finally, the integer indices, not separated by

commas, are enclosed within parentheses like

(hkl).

6. negative side of the origin is indicated by a bar or

minus sign positioned over the appropriate index

7. Reversing the digits (Sign) gives another parallel

plane on opposite side and both these planes are

equidistance from origin.

Some of the special planes are shown in next

slide. Parallel planes have same miller indices as

shown in next slide.

Som e specialplanes

(0 0 1)

Plane is parallel to X and Y

axis

So intercepts are (,,1),

hence the plane is

represented by (0 0 1)

(1 1 0)

Plane is parallel to

Z axis

intercepts are

(1,1,), hence the

plane is

represented by (1 1

0)

(1 1 1)

intercepts are

(1,1,1), hence the

plane is

represented by (1 1

1)

For some crystal, several non-parallel directions

with different indices are actually equivalent.

For example, in Cubic [1 0 0] , [0 1 0], [0 0 1] and

negatives of these are equivalent.

Such directions are grouped in a family.

They are represented by enclosing in triangular

brackets

<1 0 0>

different indices are actually equivalent. The

arrangement of atoms is same.

For example, in Cubic [1 0 0] , [0 1 0], [0 0 1] and

negatives of these are equivalent.

Such directions are grouped in a family.

They are represented by enclosing in curly brackets

{1 0 0}

Directional equivalency is related to linear

density in the sense that, for a particular

material, equivalent directions have identical

linear densities.

Linear density (LD) is defined as the number

of atoms per unit length whose centres lie on

the direction vector for a specific

Number of atoms centred on the direction

LD=

crystallographic

direction.

vector Length

of direction vector

(e.g., nm-1 , m-1)

line [1 1 0], atoms X and Y are half on the line. Thus,

for linear density, we need to consider the linear

image of the system.

In other words, along this direction [1 1 0], X and Z

are shared with one more unit cell respectively. So,

there is share of X and Z in this unit cell along this

direction. Thus,

Planes having the same planar density values

are also equivalent.

Planar density (PD) is taken as the number of

atoms

per unit area that are centred on a particular

crystallographic plane

PD= Number of atoms centred on the Plane

Area of the plane

Units of planar density are nm-2 , m-2

An example is shown in next slide.

density for FCC for the plane

shown in figure.

It is (1 1 0).

There are 6 atoms centred on

this plane. But, all the corner

atoms lie in 3 neighbouring unit

cells and are centred on (1 1 0)

itself. Thus they are shared in 4

unit cells when we consider (1 1

0).

Now considering the dimensions

in of

terms

of R, length of

Hence , no

atoms=

that plane is 4R while the

breadth is edge

length of the

2*1/2+4*1/4=2

atoms

crystal i.e. 2 sqrt(2) R.

structure

In hexagonal crystal lattice some

crystallographic equivalent

directions will not have the same

set of indices.

This problem is solved by using

this Co-ordinate scheme which

involves 4 co-ordinate axes.

The three a1, a2, and a3 axes are

all contained within a single plane

(called the basal plane) and are at

120 angles to one another. The z

axis is perpendicular to this basal

plane.

Directional indices are shown by 4

digits like [u v t w] where u,v,t,w

are the projections along a1, a2,

a3 and z axis respectively.

the four-index system

axes co-ordinate system to

4 index system is done

using these formula.

u,v and w represent the

three indices system while

u,v,t,w represent four

index system.

The u, v, w are given by

conventional way and then

u, v, w, t are found by

these formula.

system for hexagonal

A grid is constructed on the

basal plane that consists of

sets of lines parallel to each

of the a1, a2, and a3 axes.

Z-axis is also trisected at

points m and n.

This scale is referred as

reduced scale co-ordinate

system.

While using this system, we

use a/3, c/3 instead of a and

c. (Lattice parameters).

Planes in hexagonalcrystal

(hkil).

These indices are determined in the similar way

by finding the intercepts along a1, a2, z-axis.

And then the reciprocal is taken.

The index i is found by summation of h and k

index as follows,

Perfect crystal

the atoms situated at

there designated place.

There are no vacancies

or other crystallographic

imperfections.

All the atoms are in their

minimum potential

energy state so that they

are not dislocated.

An ideally perfect crystal

is not possible in reality.

We can make reasonable estimate of shear stress

required for slip in perfect lattice if we consider

that the slip occurs by the translation of one plane

of atoms over the another.

Shear stress acts in slip plane along the slip

direction.

b is the distance between atoms in one slip plane,

a is the distance between the two adjacent slip

planes and x is the distance over which the plane

has slipped.

The stress is zero when two layers are co-incident

and also when they move distance b relative to

each other. It is zero in the midway between two

atoms as well.

An approximation of this is shown in next slides.

realated to the displacement. So,

m is the maximum shear stress and b is the period.

At small displacements, hookes law will apply ,

Combining these equations, the expression for the

maximum shear stress at which slip should occur is ,

Assuming b=a, shear strength of a perfect crystal is

approximately ,

displacement of the layer.

Im perfection in crystals

Point defects

(Types)

Vacancy D efects

The equilibrium number of vacancies for a given

quantity of material depends on and increases

with temperature according to equation,

of vacancies,

Qa is the activation energy for the vacancy to be

formed, k is Boltzman constant, T is absolute

temperature.

As the temperature increases, energy of the

not present at the given place

Interstitial Impurity: In this case some foreign

atom occupies the interstitial place.

Self interstitial: In this case the same atom

dislocates and occupies the interstitial location.

case, some foreign atom

occupies the lattice point.

Divacancy: In this case, the

two atoms leave their

locations.

of cations and anions are missing from their

sites.

Frenkel defect: In this effect, cation leaves

the atomic site and occupies an interstitial

space.

D iff

usion in ionic crystals

Vc = no of cation vacancies

anion vacancies

VA =no of

2. No of interstitial Anions=VA , Anion Frenkel Pair

3. No of interstitial Cations= Vc , Cation Frenkel pair.

4. Interstitial Cations= Interstitial Anions , AntiSchotky defect.

Line defects

(D islocations)

A dislocation is a linear or one-dimensional

defect around which some of the atoms are

misaligned.

Following are the main types of dislocation

Mixed

Dislocati

on

Edge dislocation

An extra portion of a

plane of atoms, or

half-plane, the edge

of which terminates

within the crystal.This

is termed an edge

dislocation

It is a linear defect

that centers on the

line that is defined

along the end of the

extra half-plane of

atoms.

This is sometimes

Sometimes the

edge dislocation in

diagram is

represented by the

symbol

which

also indicates

the position of the

dislocation line. An

edge dislocation

may also be

formed by an

extra half-plane of

atoms that is

included in the

bottom portion of

the crystal; its

designation is .

Burgers Vector

The Burgers vector of a dislocation is a

crystal vector specified by miller indices, that

quantifies the difference between the

distorted lattice around dislocation and the

perfect lattice. Equivalently, the Burgers

vector denotes the direction and magnitude of

atomic displacement that occurs when

dislocation moves.

This image gives

idea what the

burgers vector

is.

give the dislocation

Classifi

cation of dislocation

Mixed

Dislocatio

n

Edge dislocation:

extra half-plane of atoms inserted in a crystal

structure

b the bergers vector is perpendicular to

dislocation

Line

Screw dislocation:

spiral planar ramp resulting from shear deformation

b is parallel to dislocation line

Burgers vector, b: is a measure of lattice

distortion and is

measured as a distance along the close packed

directions

in the lattice

under application of Shear stress

The spiral

stacking of

crystal

planes leads

to the

Burgers

vector

being

parallel to

the

dislocation

line. This is

Screw

dislocation.

Mixed

dislocation

This

dislocation

has both

edge and

screw

character

with a single

Burgers

vector

consistent

with the pure

edge

and pure

next slide

What are grains and grain boundaries?

Upon completion

of solidification,

grains having

irregular shapes

have

Formed. This is

how they would

look.

Crystallographic

orientation of

grains is different

microscope; dark lines are the grain boundaries.

There exists some atomic mismatch within the

region where two grainsmeet; this area, called a

small and high angle

of misorientation .

Small angle of

misorientation

results due to edge

dislocation as shown

in next slide.

This is also known as

tilt boundary

Demonstration of how a

tilt boundary having an

angle of misorientation

results from an

alignment of edge

dislocations

A twin boundary is a

special type of grain

boundary across which

there is a specific

mirror lattice symmetry

Grain Boundary

Slidingis one of

thedeformation

mechanismsof

materials which

includes

displacement

ofgrainsagainst

each other

The main

mechanism of

grain boundary

sliding is the

motion

ofdislocationsbyg

Dislocation occurs

along the surface

which contains its line

and burgers vector.

This is conservative

motion.

non-conservative

motion. Occurs when

the dislocation

moves out of the glide

surface, and thus

normal to the Burgers

vector

C lim b vs G lide

+ve

clim

b

-ve

clim

b

plane having

dislocation line as

well as burgers

vector

Slip

Glide of many dislocations results in slip, which is the most common

manifestation of plastic deformation in crystalline solids.

This is single edge dislocation moving

Motion of a plane

For edge dislocation

PN G e

2w

At the fundamental level the motion of a dislocation involves the

rearrangement of bonds requires application of shear stress on the slip

plane.

When sufficient stress is applied the dislocation moves from one

metastable energy minimum to another.

Slip occurs along the plane with higher planar densities.

In above formula , G shear modulus of the crystal

w width of the dislocation

b |b|

Bubble raftsdemonstrate

materials'microstructuraland atomic length-scale

behaviour by modelling the {111} plane of a

close-packed crystal.

These images give the demo of dislocations.

Ref: https://youtu.be/-qcys9XuNe8

Q uestions

for the directions

indicated

by the two vectors in

this sketch?

For direction 1:

Projection along x=0

Projection along y=(1/2)b

Projection along z=c

(a,b,c are edge lengths along x,y,z axes.)

So, indices are 0 1

After multiplying by 2, the direction has indices

[0 1 2].

Projection along y=(1/2)b

Projection along z= -c

(a,b,c are edge lengths along x,y,z axes.)

So direction is: [2 1 2]

grain boundary.

Ans:

When the solid is formed by solidification, grains of

irregular shapes are formed.

These grains are oriented randomly in the solid. So,

their crystallographic orientation might be different.

Hence, the region between such two grains has

atomic mismatching.

Grain boundary is the region between two grains

where atomic mismatch occurs.

A twin boundary is a special type of grain boundary

across which there is a specific mirror lattice

symmetry.

Atoms on one side of the boundary are located at

the mirror image position of other side and vice

versa.

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