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Fluid Properties and

Units
CVEN 311

Continuum
All materials, solid or fluid, are composed

of molecules discretely spread and in


continuous motion.
However, in dealing with fluid-flow
relations on a mathematical basis, it is
necessary to replace the actual molecular
structure by a hypothetical continuous
medium, called the continuum.

Continuum
In a continuum, the physical variable at a

point in space is the averaged value of the


variable in a small sphere.
How good is the assumption?
3x1010 molecules of air
10-3cm

Dimensions and Units


The dimensions have to be the same for each

term in an equation
Dimensions of mechanics are
length
mass

L
T
M

force

F ma

time

temperature

MLT-2

Dimensions and Units


Quantity Symbol Dimensions
Velocity V LT-1-1
Accelerationa LT-2-2
Area A L22
Volume L33
Discharge Q L33T-1-1
Pressure p ML-1-1T-2-2
Gravity g LT-2-2
Temperature T
Mass concentration C ML-3-3

Dimensions and Units


Quantity Symbol Dimensions
Density ML-3-3
Specific Weight ML-2-2T-2-2
Dynamic viscosity ML-1-1T-1-1
Kinematic viscosity L22T-1-1
Surface tension MT-2-2
Bulk mod of elasticity E ML-1-1T-2-2

fluid properties!
These are _______
4
How many independent properties? _____

Definition of a Fluid
a fluid, such as water or air, deforms

continuously when acted on by shearing


stresses of any magnitude.
- Munson, Young, Okiishi
Water
Oil
Air
Why isnt steel a fluid?

Fluid Deformation between


Parallel Plates
F

U
b
Side view
Force F causes the top plate to have velocity U.
What other parameters control how much force is
required to get a desired velocity?

Distance between plates (b)


Area of plates (A)
Viscosity!

Shear Stress

AU
F
b

A
U

b

du

dy

Ft
dimension of
AU

Tangential force per unit area


U
b

N s
m 2
N
m 2

Rate of angular deformation

change in velocity with respect to distance

rate of shear

1
s

Newtonian
Ideal Fluid
Ideal plastic

du
Rate of deformation dy

Fluid classification by response


to shear stress
Ideal Fluid

Newtonian

Shear stress

Ideal plastic
du

dy

Fluid Viscosity
Examples of highly viscous fluids
______________________
molasses, tar, 20w-50 oil

Fundamental mechanisms
Gases - transfer of molecular momentum

Viscosity __________ as temperature increases.

increases

Viscosity __________
increases as pressure increases.
Liquids - cohesion
_______ and momentum transfer

Viscosity decreases as temperature increases.

Relatively independent of pressure (incompressible)

Example: Measure the viscosity


of water
The inner cylinder is 10
cm in diameter and rotates
at 10 rpm. The fluid layer
is 2 mm thick and 10 cm
high. The power required
to turn the inner cylinder
is 50x10-6-6 watts. What is
the dynamic viscosity of
the fluid?

Outer
cylinder
Inner
cylinder

Thin layer of water

Solution Scheme
Restate the goal
Identify the given parameters and represent the

parameters using symbols


Outline your solution including the equations
describing the physical constraints and any
simplifying assumptions
Solve for the unknown symbolically
Substitute numerical values with units and do the
arithmetic

Check your units!

Check the reasonableness of your answer

Solution

Role of Viscosity
Statics
Fluids at rest have no relative motion between

layers of fluid and thus du/dy = 0


Therefore the shear stress is _____
zero and is
independent of the fluid viscosity
Flows
Fluid viscosity is very important when the fluid

is moving

Dynamic and Kinematic


Viscosity
n

Kinematic viscosity (__) is a fluid property

obtained by dividing the dynamic viscosity


m by the fluid density
(__)

kg
m s

kg
m 3

N s
2
m

kg m
2

[m2/s]

Connection to Reynolds number!

r VD
Re =
m

Density (mass/unit

Specific mass
volume)
density of water:1000

kg/m3

Density (kg/m3)

Density and Specific Weight


1000
990
980
970
960
950
0

atmospheric pressure and


15 C: 1.22 kg/m3
Specific Weight (weight

per unit volume)


__________________
= g = 9806 N/m3

Density (kg/m3)

density of air at

50
100
Temperature (C)

1000
999
998
997
0

10
Temperature (C)

20

Perfect Gas Law


Note deviation from the text!
PV = nRT
R is the universal gas constant
T is in Kelvin

N
m
R 8.314
mol
K

Use absolute pressure for P and absolute


temperature for T

Bulk Modulus of Elasticity


volume to a change in
pressure
changes in density at

high pressure
pressure waves

_________
sound

water
______ __________
hammer
a

Ev

speed of sound

dp
Ev

dV / V

Bulk Modulus of elasticity (GPa)

Relates the change in

dp
Ev
d/

2.35
2.30
2.25
2.20
2.15

Water

2.10
2.05
2.00
0

20

40

60

Temperature (C)

80

100

Vapor Pressure

liquid

Vapor pressure (Pa)

8000
7000
6000
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
0
0

10

20

30

Temperature (C)

What is vapor pressure of water at 100C?101 kPa


Connection forward to cavitation!

40

Cavitation

Cavitation Damage

Pressure

increase in a
spherical droplet
pR2

Surface tension (N/m)

Surface Tension

2R
pR2 = 2R

0.080
0.075
0.070
0.065
0.060
0.055
0.050

2
p
R

20

40

60

80 100

Temperature (C)
Surface molecules

Example: Surface Tension


Estimate the difference in pressure (in Pa)

between the inside and outside of a bubble


of air in 20C water. The air bubble is 0.3
mm in diameter.
-3
-3
2
p
R

p =970 Pa

2 0.073 N/m
p
0.15 103 m

974 Pa

R = 0.15 x 10 m

= 0.073 N/m

h
0.1 m water
3
Statics! p h
9806 N / m
What is the difference between
pressure in a water droplet and in an

Outline the solution


Restate the goal
Identify the given parameters and represent

the parameters using symbols


Outline your solution including the
equations describing the physical
constraints and any simplifying
assumptions

1.16x10 N s/m
-3

Viscosity Measurement: Solution


AU
F
t

2r 2 h
F
t
P Fr

2 2 r 3 h
P
t

A 2rh

Outer
cylinder

Inner
r = 5 cm
cylinder
t = 2 mm
h = 10 cm
P = 50 x 10-6 W
10 rpm
Thin layer of water
Pt

2 2 r 3h

(50 x10-6 W) (0.002 m)


-3
2

1.16x10
N

s/m
2 (1.047/s) 2 (0.05 m)3 (0.1 m)